Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 11:54:53 AM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000055
Identification
Name: L-Glutamate
Description:Glutamic acid (Glu), also referred to as glutamate (the anion), is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. Glutamate is a key molecule in cellular metabolism. There are two forms of glutamic acid found in nature: L-glutamic acid and D-glutamic acid. D-glutamic acid is found naturally primarily in the cell walls of certain bacteria. The carboxylate anions and salts of glutamic acid are known as glutamates. Glutamate is a key compound in cellular metabolism. Glutamic acid is often used as a food additive and flavour enhancer in the form of its sodium salt monosodium glutamate (MSG). Transamination of ??-ketoglutarate gives glutamate. Glutamate will also go through transamination reactions with other ??-ketoacids.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • α-aminoglutarate
  • α-aminoglutaric acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (S)-(+)-Glutamate
  • (S)-(+)-Glutamic acid
  • (S)-2-Aminopentanedioate
  • (S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • (S)-Glutamate
  • (S)-Glutamic acid
  • 1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  • 1-Amino-propane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  • 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylate
  • 1-Aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid
  • 2-Aminoglutarate
  • 2-Aminoglutaric acid
  • 2-Aminopentanedioate
  • 2-Aminopentanedioic acid
  • A-Aminoglutarate
  • A-Aminoglutaric acid
  • A-Glutamate
  • A-Glutamic acid
  • Aciglut
  • Alpha-Aminoglutarate
  • Alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  • Alpha-Glutamate
  • Alpha-Glutamic acid
  • Aminoglutarate
  • Aminoglutaric acid
  • E
  • Glt
  • Glu
  • Glusate
  • Glusic acid
  • Glut
  • Glutacid
  • Glutamate
  • Glutamic acid
  • Glutamicol
  • Glutamidex
  • Glutaminate
  • Glutaminic acid
  • Glutaminol
  • Glutaton
  • L-(+)-Glutamate
  • L-(+)-Glutamic acid
  • L-a-Aminoglutarate
  • L-a-Aminoglutaric acid
  • L-alpha-Aminoglutarate
  • L-alpha-Aminoglutaric acid
  • L-Glu
  • L-Glutamate
  • L-Glutamic acid
  • L-Glutaminate
  • L-Glutaminic acid
  • L-α-Aminoglutarate
  • L-α-Aminoglutaric acid
  • α-Aminoglutarate
  • α-Aminoglutaric acid
  • α-Glutamate
  • α-Glutamic acid
Chemical Formula: C5H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight: 147.1293
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 147.053157781
InChI Key: WHUUTDBJXJRKMK-VKHMYHEASA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c6-3(5(9)10)1-2-4(7)8/h3H,1-2,6H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t3-/m0/s1
CAS number: 56-86-0
IUPAC Name:(2S)-2-aminopentanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name: L-glutamic acid
SMILES:N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Class Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent L-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Charge:-1
Melting point: Not Available
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:8.57 mg/mL [BULL,HB et al. (1978)]PhysProp
LogP:-3.69 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility80.6 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.5ALOGPS
logP-3.2ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.62 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity31.29 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Reactions:
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Hydrogen carbonate >2 ADP + Carbamoylphosphate + L-Glutamate +2 Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + Water + L-Glutamate > ADP + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + Water + L-Glutamate > ADP + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 2-Aminobenzoic acid + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Pyruvic acid
N-Acetylornithine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamate + Ammonium
L-Glutamine + Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P > Phosphoribosyl formamidocarboxamide + D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Alanine <> L-Glutamate + Pyruvic acid
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid semialdehyde
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide
Ketoleucine + L-Glutamate > alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Leucine
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonium > ADP + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Phenylalanine <> L-Glutamate + Phenylpyruvic acid
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Tyrosine <> 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Alanine-L-glutamate + Water > L-Alanine + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate > ADP + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphate
L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Pyrophosphate
L-Glutamate + 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine
Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate > alpha-Ketoglutarate + Phosphoserine
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Aspartic acid <> L-Glutamate + Oxalacetic acid
L-D-1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + 2 Water + NAD > L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + NADH
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Putrescine + Ethylenediamine <> ADP + gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
Water + N-Succinyl-L-glutamate <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid
alpha-Ketoglutarate + N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine <> L-Glutamate + N2-Succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde
L-Glutamate + Water + NADP <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Hydrogen ion + NADPH + Ammonium
L-Glutamate + Imidazole acetol-phosphate <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Histidinol phosphate
L-Glutamate + UDP-4-Keto-pyranose <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Uridine 5''-diphospho-{beta}-4-deoxy-4-amino-L-arabinose
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + tRNA (Glu) > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) + Pyrophosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Xanthylic acid > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate + Guanosine monophosphate +2 Hydrogen ion + Pyrophosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide + L-Glutamine + Water <> ADP + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamate + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine + L-Glutamate <> ADP + gamma-Glutamylcysteine + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Uridine triphosphate > ADP + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate +2 Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate <> N-Acetyl-L-alanine + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N-Acetylglutamic acid
alpha-Ketoglutarate + Putrescine > 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + N-Succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate <> L-Glutamate + N-Succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate
Glutathione + Water > Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamate
Fructose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine <> Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Isoleucine <> 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
alpha-Ketoglutarate + L-Valine <> alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
4,6-Dideoxy-4-oxo-dTDP-D-glucose + L-Glutamate > alpha-Ketoglutarate + dTDP-D-Fucosamine
D-Glutamic acid <> L-Glutamate
2 L-Glutamate + NAD <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADH + Hydrogen ion
2 L-Glutamate + NADP <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate <> ADP + L-Glutamyl 5-phosphate + L-Glutamic acid 5-phosphate
L-Glutamate + NAD + Water <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen ion
L-Glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water <> L-Glutamate + NADH + Hydrogen ion
L-Glutamate + NADP + Water <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonia <> ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamine
L-Glutamine + Water <> L-Glutamate + Ammonia
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate <> Coenzyme A + N-Acetyl-L-alanine
L-Glutamate <> gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water <> ADP + Phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water <>2 ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
L-D-1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NADP + 2 Water <> L-Glutamate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + L-Cysteine <> ADP + Phosphate + gamma-Glutamylcysteine
beta-Alanine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Malonic semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Tetrahydrofolic acid + L-Glutamate <> ADP + Phosphate + Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2)
Chorismate + L-Glutamine <> 2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Leucine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 4-Methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-Glutamate + Ketoleucine
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + L-Glutamate <> ADP + Phosphate + Dihydrofolic acid
Cysteic acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 3-Sulfopyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
3-Sulfinoalanine + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> 3-Sulfinylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
R-S-Glutathione + Water <> R-S-Cysteinylglycine + L-Glutamate
3-Cyano-L-alanine + L-Glutamate <> gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine + Water
beta-Aminopropionitrile + L-Glutamate <> gamma-Glutamyl-beta-aminopropiononitrile + Water
(S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide + L-Glutamine + Water <> ADP + Phosphate + Phosphoribosylformylglycineamidine + L-Glutamate
Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-Glutamine <> D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + AICAR + L-Glutamate
L-erythro-4-Hydroxyglutamate + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> D-4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate + L-Glutamate
tRNA(Glu) + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate + tRNA(Glu) <> L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) + Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
2-Oxo-4-methylthiobutanoic acid + L-Glutamate <> L-Methionine + alpha-Ketoglutarate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Putrescine <> ADP + Phosphate + gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine
6-Thioxanthine 5'-monophosphate + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water <> 6-Thioguanosine monophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamate
Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate + NADPH > ADP + L-Glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde + NADP + Phosphate
Oxoglutaric acid + kynurenine L-Glutamate + 4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoate
-->-->N-Acetylornithine + Oxoglutaric acid < N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
Oxoglutaric acid + L-Alanine <> L-Glutamate + Pyruvic acid
L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid <> Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Isoleucine + Oxoglutaric acid <> 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
L-Leucine + Oxoglutaric acid <> Ketoleucine + L-Glutamate
L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid <> alpha-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
Oxoglutaric acid + L-Cysteine > L-Glutamate + 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid
an aliphatic &alpha;,&omega;-diamine + Oxoglutaric acid <> an aliphatic &omega;-aminoaldehyde + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamate + 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + Dihydrofolic acid + Phosphate + ADP
a tetrahydrofolate-glutamate + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > a tetrahydrofolate-glutamate + Phosphate + ADP
an <i>N</i><sup>10</sup>-formyl-tetrahydrofolate + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > an <i>N</i><sup>10</sup>-formyl-tetrahydrofolate + ADP + Phosphate
Oxoglutaric acid + gamma-Aminobutyric acid <> L-Glutamate + Succinic acid semialdehyde
L-Glutamate + NADP < Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-Glutamine > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + AICAR
L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + Ammonia
L-Glutamate + Water + NADP <> Hydrogen ion + Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH
Imidazole acetol-phosphate + L-Glutamate <> Histidinol phosphate + Oxoglutaric acid
L-Glutamate + Acetyl-CoA <> Hydrogen ion + <i>N</i>-acetyl-L-glutamate + Coenzyme A
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + NAD + L-Glutamate
Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate <> L-Phenylalanine + Oxoglutaric acid
5-Phosphoribosylamine + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamate < Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + L-Glutamine + Water
Phosphoserine + Oxoglutaric acid <> Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamate <> O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + Oxoglutaric acid
Putrescine + Oxoglutaric acid <> 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + L-Glutamate
4,6-Dideoxy-4-oxo-dTDP-D-glucose + L-Glutamate <> dTDP-D-Fucosamine + Oxoglutaric acid
Uridine 5''-diphospho-{beta}-4-deoxy-4-amino-L-arabinose + Oxoglutaric acid <> UDP-4-Keto-pyranose + L-Glutamate
a 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > a 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate + Phosphate + ADP
Putrescine + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + ADP + Phosphate
Water + p-Aminobenzoyl glutamate > p-Aminobenzoic acid + L-Glutamate
a [protein] &alpha;-L-glutamate + L-Glutamate + Adenosine triphosphate a [protein] &alpha;-L-glu-&alpha;-L-glu + ADP + Phosphate
L-Alanyl-L-Glutamate + Water > L-Alanine + L-Glutamate
glycyl-L-glutamate + Water > Glycine + L-Glutamate
N<SUP>2</SUP>-succinylglutamate + Water > Succinic acid + L-Glutamate
Oxoglutaric acid + N-Succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate <> L-Glutamate + N-Succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate
N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine + Oxoglutaric acid > N2-Succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid <> 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Carbonic acid + Water >2 ADP + Inorganic phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
L-Glutamate + Water + NADP > Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH
Adenosine triphosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-Glutamate > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1)
Adenosine triphosphate + 7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + L-Glutamate > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + Dihydrofolic acid
(S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid > 2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoate + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonia > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + L-Glutamine
2 L-Glutamate + NADP > L-Glutamine + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + L-Cysteine > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + gamma-Glutamylcysteine
L-Valine + Oxoglutaric acid > a-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamate
Putrescine + Oxoglutaric acid > L-Glutamate + 1-Pyrroline + Water
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) + 2 Water > L-Glutamate + NAD(P)H
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Putrescine > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + tRNA(Glu) > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
An aromatic amino acid + Oxoglutaric acid > an aromatic oxo acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> ADP + Phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water + Ammonia + Carbamic acid + Carboxyphosphate <>2 ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
Phosphoserine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine <> Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamate + 2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid
Ethylenediamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + 4-Aminobutyraldehyde <> 1-Pyrroline + L-Glutamate + Water
2 L-Glutamate + NADP + Ammonia + Water <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Aromatic amino acid + alpha-Ketoglutarate <> Aromatic oxo acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + THF-polyglutamate + L-Glutamate <> ADP + Phosphate
Ammonia + L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Oxoglutaric acid + L-Glutamate <> Phosphate + L-Glutamine + Adenosine diphosphate + ADP
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonium + L-Glutamate > L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + ADP
Hydrogen ion + NADPH + Ammonia + NADPH <> Water + NADP + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Ammonium + Hydrogen ion + NADPH > L-Glutamic acid + Water + NADP + L-Glutamate
2 L-Glutamic acid + NADP + 2 L-Glutamate > L-Glutamine + NADPH + Hydrogen ion + Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> D-Glutamic acid
N-Succinyl-2-amino-6-ketopimelate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > N-Succinyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate + Oxoglutaric acid
L-Glutamic acid + Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate > Carbon dioxide + 4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate
L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid + L-Alanine <> L-Glutamic acid + Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamate
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + L-Aspartic acid > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamic acid + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid + L-Aspartic acid > Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
a-Ketoisovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Valine + L-Valine
Isovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Valine + L-Valine
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid + 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Valine + L-Valine
L-Glutamic acid + Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamate > Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N-Acetylglutamic acid + N-Acetylglutamic acid
N-acetyl-L-glutamate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + N-Acetylornithine
N-Acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + N-Acetylornithine
Hydrogen carbonate + Water + L-Glutamine + 2 Adenosine triphosphate >2 Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + L-Glutamic acid +2 Hydrogen ion + Carbamoylphosphate +2 ADP + L-Glutamate
N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine + Oxoglutaric acid > L-Glutamic acid + N2-Succinyl-L-glutamic acid 5-semialdehyde + L-Glutamate
N2-succinylglutamate + Water + N2-succinylglutamate > L-Glutamic acid + Succinic acid + L-Glutamate
Putrescine + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Phosphate + Adenosine diphosphate + Hydrogen ion + gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + ADP
4-(Glutamylamino) butanoate + Water > L-Glutamic acid + gamma-Aminobutyric acid + L-Glutamate
Putrescine + Oxoglutaric acid > L-Glutamic acid + 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + L-Glutamate
gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Oxoglutaric acid > Succinic acid semialdehyde + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate > Adenosine diphosphate + γ-L-glutamyl 5-phosphate + ADP
L-Glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water >2 Hydrogen ion + NADH + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen ion + tRNA(Glu) + L-Glutamate > Pyrophosphate + Adenosine monophosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
8 L-Glutamic acid + 8 Hydrogen ion + 8 Adenosine triphosphate + 8 tRNA(Glu) + 8 L-Glutamate >8 Adenosine monophosphate +8 Pyrophosphate +8 L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + DL-O-Phosphoserine
2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> A-Ketoglutaric acid oxime + O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine
4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Tyrosine + L-Tyrosine
Ketoleucine + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Leucine
Phenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Phenylalanine + L-Phenylalanine
L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine
L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> Oxoglutaric acid + O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine
L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + A-Ketoglutaric acid oxime
2-Oxo-3-hydroxy-4-phosphobutanoic acid + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> O-Phospho-4-hydroxy-L-threonine + Oxoglutaric acid
Phosphoribulosylformimino-AICAR-P + L-Glutamine > L-Glutamic acid + Hydrogen ion + 5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxyamide + D-Erythro-imidazole-glycerol-phosphate + L-Glutamate
Imidazole acetol-phosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-histidinol-phosphate
3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamic acid + 3-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + L-Isoleucine + L-Isoleucine
L-Aspartic acid + Water + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + L-Aspartic acid > L-Asparagine + Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > L-Glutamic acid + Pyruvic acid + Hydrogen ion + 2-Aminobenzoic acid + L-Glutamate
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Water + L-Glutamine + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid + NAD + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Cysteine + L-Glutamate > Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + gamma-Glutamylcysteine + ADP
D-tagatofuranose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine <> Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
Fructose 6-phosphate + L-Glutamine + Fructose 6-phosphate > L-Glutamic acid + Glucosamine 6-phosphate + L-Glutamate
UDP-β-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + Uridine 5''-diphospho-{beta}-4-deoxy-4-amino-L-arabinose
Chorismate + L-Glutamine > L-Glutamic acid + 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-Glutamate + 4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate
7,8-Dihydropteroic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate > Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + 7,8-dihydrofolate monoglutamate + ADP + Dihydrofolic acid
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate + Water + L-Glutamine > 5-Phosphoribosylamine + L-Glutamic acid + Pyrophosphate + 5-Phosphoribosylamine + L-Glutamate
5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide + Water + L-Glutamine + Adenosine triphosphate + 5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycineamide > 2-(Formamido)-N1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-Glutamic acid + Phosphate + Adenosine diphosphate + Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + ADP
Xanthylic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Glutamic acid +2 Hydrogen ion + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate > Adenosine diphosphate + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate + L-Glutamic acid + Cytidine triphosphate + ADP + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamic acid + dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose + L-Glutamate > Oxoglutaric acid + dTDP-thomosamine
Acetyl-CoA + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate <> N-Acetyl-L-alanine + Coenzyme A + Hydrogen ion + N-Acetylglutamic acid + N-Acetyl-L-alanine + N-Acetylglutamic acid
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Water + L-Glutamate > Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamic acid + ADP
Putrescine + Oxoglutaric acid <> L-Glutamic acid + 1-Pyrroline + Water + L-Glutamate
More...

Pathways:
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0002-2950000000-2d6edc93ec5f8dee2223View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-002b-0940000000-4e285988bc537825d94dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-9630000000-1ecc76aab86283892139View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-001i-8910000000-00f65ced0c55aa4ad169View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0032-3980000000-3069de5b6c49e4176968View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-6900000000-95b0a084dc076f9c7b91View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-c37d4c80a14ec029ef63View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-9000000000-6f1888aa71bcb0adf76cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004j-0900000000-5fa8a338dcd2f2a6bdd2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-16763200aa07f7629ad4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-3900000000-d9cfc5187aa799f6f978View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-10ee9a593e13550bec1cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-4d045a3c1fc6e56f801bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c3c7f8f3754109a0c25bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-48bfae26c69408b7f0aeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-82c2a681e7522a7bb1d1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0905010000-af1c9ec4d0062fa6960eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-01q9-9700000000-2b967b896a6e48914512View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-1434321646181ea894a0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-11fadb2530828eedad8aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-006t-0941100000-07d051890cb1d9e5c856View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-9200000000-f8619d11f1f54d836bb1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-ea2dd00e79ef06e8dc04View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-3e239d4014c95a2ef873View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-b548959edce39d319cf4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-40d901f655797db2cd0fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-f997527a39900ac431c7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-7900000000-60816f0601a4e6d25ffbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0007-9000000000-6ee821f657c604d1afcaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-000t-0900000000-7c02624abe56da9247a2View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
References:
  • Agarwal A, Tripathi LM, Pandey VC: Status of ammonia, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate during Plasmodium yoelii infection and pyrimethamine treatment in mice. J Commun Dis. 1997 Sep;29(3):235-41. Pubmed: 9465528
  • Agnati LF, Ferre S, Lluis C, Franco R, Fuxe K: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutical implications of intramembrane receptor/receptor interactions among heptahelical receptors with examples from the striatopallidal GABA neurons. Pharmacol Rev. 2003 Sep;55(3):509-50. Epub 2003 Jul 17. Pubmed: 12869660
  • Alfredsson G, Wiesel FA, Tylec A: Relationships between glutamate and monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 1988 Apr 1;23(7):689-97. Pubmed: 2453224
  • Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Chen K, Sheng Q, Featherstone DE: Nonvesicular release of glutamate by glial xCT transporters suppresses glutamate receptor clustering in vivo. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 3;27(1):111-23. Pubmed: 17202478
  • Bennett, B. D., Kimball, E. H., Gao, M., Osterhout, R., Van Dien, S. J., Rabinowitz, J. D. (2009). "Absolute metabolite concentrations and implied enzyme active site occupancy in Escherichia coli." Nat Chem Biol 5:593-599. Pubmed: 19561621
  • Corrie JE, DeSantis A, Katayama Y, Khodakhah K, Messenger JB, Ogden DC, Trentham DR: Postsynaptic activation at the squid giant synapse by photolytic release of L-glutamate from a 'caged' L-glutamate. J Physiol. 1993 Jun;465:1-8. Pubmed: 7901400
  • Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
  • Frayn KN, Khan K, Coppack SW, Elia M: Amino acid metabolism in human subcutaneous adipose tissue in vivo. Clin Sci (Lond). 1991 May;80(5):471-4. Pubmed: 1851687
  • Grasselli G, Vigano L, Capri G, Locatelli A, Tarenzi E, Spreafico C, Bertuzzi A, Giani A, Materazzo C, Cresta S, Perotti A, Valagussa P, Gianni L: Clinical and pharmacologic study of the epirubicin and paclitaxel combination in women with metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Apr 15;19(8):2222-31. Pubmed: 11304775
  • Heuschen UA, Allemeyer EH, Hinz U, Langer K, Heuschen G, Decker-Baumann C, Herfarth C, Stern J: Glutamine distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis and in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli before and after restorative proctocolectomy. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2002 Jul;17(4):245-52. Epub 2001 Dec 18. Pubmed: 12073073
  • Ishii, N., Nakahigashi, K., Baba, T., Robert, M., Soga, T., Kanai, A., Hirasawa, T., Naba, M., Hirai, K., Hoque, A., Ho, P. Y., Kakazu, Y., Sugawara, K., Igarashi, S., Harada, S., Masuda, T., Sugiyama, N., Togashi, T., Hasegawa, M., Takai, Y., Yugi, K., Arakawa, K., Iwata, N., Toya, Y., Nakayama, Y., Nishioka, T., Shimizu, K., Mori, H., Tomita, M. (2007). "Multiple high-throughput analyses monitor the response of E. coli to perturbations." Science 316:593-597. Pubmed: 17379776
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Molinari F, Raas-Rothschild A, Rio M, Fiermonte G, Encha-Razavi F, Palmieri L, Palmieri F, Ben-Neriah Z, Kadhom N, Vekemans M, Attie-Bitach T, Munnich A, Rustin P, Colleaux L: Impaired mitochondrial glutamate transport in autosomal recessive neonatal myoclonic epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Feb;76(2):334-9. Epub 2004 Dec 8. Pubmed: 15592994
  • Mross K, Maessen P, van der Vijgh WJ, Gall H, Boven E, Pinedo HM: Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of epidoxorubicin and doxorubicin in humans. J Clin Oncol. 1988 Mar;6(3):517-26. Pubmed: 3162516
  • Nakamura K, Matsumura K, Kobayashi S, Kaneko T: Sympathetic premotor neurons mediating thermoregulatory functions. Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan;51(1):1-8. Pubmed: 15596234
  • Nicholson JK, O'Flynn MP, Sadler PJ, Macleod AF, Juul SM, Sonksen PH: Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of serum, plasma and urine from fasting normal and diabetic subjects. Biochem J. 1984 Jan 15;217(2):365-75. Pubmed: 6696735
  • Noorlander CW, de Graan PN, Nikkels PG, Schrama LH, Visser GH: Distribution of glutamate transporters in the human placenta. Placenta. 2004 Jul;25(6):489-95. Pubmed: 15135231
  • Okumoto S, Looger LL, Micheva KD, Reimer RJ, Smith SJ, Frommer WB: Detection of glutamate release from neurons by genetically encoded surface-displayed FRET nanosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8740-5. Epub 2005 Jun 6. Pubmed: 15939876
  • Olson RC: A proposed role for nerve growth factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 1998 Dec;51(6):493-8. Pubmed: 10052870
  • Peng CT, Wu KH, Lan SJ, Tsai JJ, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH: Amino acid concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2005 May;41(8):1158-63. Epub 2005 Apr 14. Pubmed: 15911239
  • Rainesalo S, Keranen T, Palmio J, Peltola J, Oja SS, Saransaari P: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in epileptic patients. Neurochem Res. 2004 Jan;29(1):319-24. Pubmed: 14992292
  • Reeds PJ, Burrin DG, Stoll B, Jahoor F: Intestinal glutamate metabolism. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):978S-82S. Pubmed: 10736365
  • Rizzo V, Anesi A, Montalbetti L, Bellantoni G, Trotti R, Melzi d'Eril GV: Reference values of neuroactive amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical and fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr A. 1996 Apr 5;729(1-2):181-8. Pubmed: 9004939
  • Rutten EP, Engelen MP, Wouters EF, Schols AM, Deutz NE: Metabolic effects of glutamine and glutamate ingestion in healthy subjects and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan;83(1):115-23. Pubmed: 16400059
  • Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
  • Smith QR: Transport of glutamate and other amino acids at the blood-brain barrier. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4S Suppl):1016S-22S. Pubmed: 10736373
  • Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Vijayendran, C., Barsch, A., Friehs, K., Niehaus, K., Becker, A., Flaschel, E. (2008). "Perceiving molecular evolution processes in Escherichia coli by comprehensive metabolite and gene expression profiling." Genome Biol 9:R72. Pubmed: 18402659
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
  • Zoia C, Cogliati T, Tagliabue E, Cavaletti G, Sala G, Galimberti G, Rivolta I, Rossi V, Frattola L, Ferrarese C: Glutamate transporters in platelets: EAAT1 decrease in aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Feb;25(2):149-57. Pubmed: 14749132
  • Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
Synthesis Reference: Horner, L.; Gross, A. Tertiary phosphines. IV. Use of phosphine imines in causing the introduction of primary amino groups. Ann. (1955), 591 117-34.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16015
HMDB IDHMDB00148
Pubchem Compound ID33032
Kegg IDC00025
ChemSpider ID30572
WikipediaGlutamic_acid
BioCyc IDGLT
EcoCyc IDGLT
Ligand ExpoGLU_LFZW_DHE2

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH
Gene Name:
gdhA
Locus Tag:
PA4588
Molecular weight:
48.9 kDa
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ansB
Locus Tag:
PA1337
Molecular weight:
38.6 kDa
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
trpE
Locus Tag:
PA0609
Molecular weight:
54.6 kDa
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) from chorismate and glutamine
Gene Name:
pabA
Locus Tag:
PA0649
Molecular weight:
22 kDa
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
trpD
Locus Tag:
PA0650
Molecular weight:
37.4 kDa
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
N-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-anthranilate + diphosphate = anthranilate + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
carB
Locus Tag:
PA4756
Molecular weight:
117.3 kDa
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in GMP synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of GMP from XMP
Gene Name:
guaA
Locus Tag:
PA3769
Molecular weight:
58 kDa
Reactions
ATP + xanthosine 5'-phosphate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + GMP + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transferase activity
Specific function:
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
tyrB
Locus Tag:
PA3139
Molecular weight:
43.3 kDa
Reactions
An aromatic amino acid + 2-oxoglutarate = an aromatic oxo acid + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction:glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu)
Gene Name:
gltX
Locus Tag:
PA3134
Molecular weight:
56.7 kDa
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + tRNA(Glu) = AMP + diphosphate + L-glutamyl-tRNA(Glu).
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) from chorismate and glutamine
Gene Name:
pabB
Locus Tag:
PA1758
Molecular weight:
49.6 kDa
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of folates to polyglutamate derivatives
Gene Name:
folC
Locus Tag:
PA3111
Molecular weight:
46.5 kDa
Reactions
ATP + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n) + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + tetrahydropteroyl-(gamma-Glu)(n+1).
ATP + 7,8-dihydropteroate + L-glutamate = ADP + phosphate + 7,8-dihydropteroylglutamate.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Oxidizes proline to glutamate for use as a carbon and nitrogen source and also function as a transcriptional repressor of the put operon
Gene Name:
putA
Locus Tag:
PA0782
Molecular weight:
115.6 kDa
Reactions
L-proline + acceptor = (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + reduced acceptor.
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + NAD(P)(+) + 2 H(2)O = L-glutamate + NAD(P)H.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2- oxoglutarate + NADPH
Gene Name:
gltB
Locus Tag:
PA5036
Molecular weight:
161.6 kDa
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2- oxoglutarate + NADPH
Gene Name:
gltD
Locus Tag:
PA5035
Molecular weight:
52.6 kDa
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate = CoA + N-acetyl-L- glutamate
Gene Name:
argA
Locus Tag:
PA5204
Molecular weight:
47.9 kDa
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + L-glutamate = CoA + N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in glutamine catabolic process
Specific function:
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
carA
Locus Tag:
PA4758
Molecular weight:
40.8 kDa
Reactions
2 ATP + L-glutamine + HCO(3)(-) + H(2)O = 2 ADP + phosphate + L-glutamate + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
glsA2
Locus Tag:
PA1638
Molecular weight:
33 kDa
Reactions
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in glutamate-cysteine ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
Gene Name:
gshA
Locus Tag:
PA5203
Molecular weight:
59.2 kDa
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + L-cysteine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine.
General function:
Involved in cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to glutamate to form glutamate 5-phosphate which rapidly cyclizes to 5- oxoproline
Gene Name:
proB
Locus Tag:
PA4565
Molecular weight:
39.8 kDa
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate = ADP + L-glutamate 5-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen
Gene Name:
pyrG
Locus Tag:
PA3637
Molecular weight:
59.6 kDa
Reactions
ATP + UTP + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + CTP.
General function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
Gene Name:
glnA
Locus Tag:
PA5119
Molecular weight:
51.9 kDa
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
General function:
Involved in amidophosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O
Gene Name:
purF
Locus Tag:
PA3108
Molecular weight:
55.4 kDa
Reactions
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D- ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + 2- (formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
purL
Locus Tag:
PA3763
Molecular weight:
140.6 kDa
Reactions
ATP + N(2)-formyl-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide + L-glutamine + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate + 2-(formamido)-N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)acetamidine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first step in hexosamine metabolism, converting fructose-6P into glucosamine-6P using glutamine as a nitrogen source
Gene Name:
glmS
Locus Tag:
PA5549
Molecular weight:
66.3 kDa
Reactions
L-glutamine + D-fructose 6-phosphate = L-glutamate + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Involved in both the arginine and lysine biosynthetic pathways
Gene Name:
argD
Locus Tag:
PA0895
Molecular weight:
43.7 kDa
Reactions
N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + 2-oxoglutarate = N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
N-succinyl-L-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate + 2-oxoglutarate = N-succinyl-2-L-amino-6-oxoheptanedioate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a key step in NAD biosynthesis, transforming deamido-NAD into NAD by a two-step reaction
Gene Name:
nadE
Locus Tag:
PA4920
Molecular weight:
29.7 kDa
Reactions
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + NH(3) = AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+).
General function:
Involved in gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific function:
(5-L-glutamyl)-peptide + an amino acid = peptide + 5-L-glutamyl amino acid
Gene Name:
ggt
Locus Tag:
PA1338
Molecular weight:
59.9 kDa
Reactions
A (5-L-glutamyl)-peptide + an amino acid = a peptide + a 5-L-glutamyl amino acid.
Glutathione + H(2)O = L-cysteinylglycine + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity
Specific function:
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
gabT
Locus Tag:
PA0266
Molecular weight:
45.2 kDa
Reactions
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
(S)-3-amino-2-methylpropanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in racemase and epimerase activity, acting on amino acids and derivatives
Specific function:
Provides the (R)-glutamate required for cell wall biosynthesis
Gene Name:
murI
Locus Tag:
PA4662
Molecular weight:
28.3 kDa
Reactions
L-glutamate = D-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in metabolic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of 3- phosphohydroxypyruvate to phosphoserine and of 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4- phosphonooxybutanoate to phosphohydroxythreonine. Is involved in both pyridoxine and serine biosynthesis
Gene Name:
serC
Locus Tag:
PA3167
Molecular weight:
39.9 kDa
Reactions
O-phospho-L-serine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-phosphonooxypyruvate + L-glutamate.
4-phosphonooxy-L-threonine + 2-oxoglutarate = (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phosphonooxybutanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Displays a broad specificity and can also deacylate substrates such as acetylarginine, acetylhistidine or acetylglutamate semialdehyde
Gene Name:
argE
Locus Tag:
PA5206
Molecular weight:
42.2 kDa
Reactions
N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + H(2)O = acetate + L-ornithine.
General function:
Involved in transaminase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of UDP-4-keto-arabinose (UDP- Ara4O) to UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose (UDP-L-Ara4N). The modified arabinose is attached to lipid A and is required for resistance to polymyxin and cationic antimicrobial peptides
Gene Name:
arnB
Locus Tag:
PA3552
Molecular weight:
41.9 kDa
Reactions
UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-beta-L-arabinose + 2-oxoglutarate = UDP-beta-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose + glutamate.
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for aspartate/glutamate; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
gltJ
Locus Tag:
PA1341
Molecular weight:
27.6 kDa
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for aspartate/glutamate; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
gltK
Locus Tag:
PA1340
Molecular weight:
24.6 kDa
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
yfbQ
Locus Tag:
PA2828
Molecular weight:
44.8 kDa
Reactions
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Acts on leucine, isoleucine and valine
Gene Name:
ilvE
Locus Tag:
PA5013
Molecular weight:
34.1 kDa
Reactions
L-leucine + 2-oxoglutarate = 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
L-isoleucine + 2-oxoglutarate = (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + L-glutamate.
L-valine + 2-oxoglutarate = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamate and aspartate. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
gltL
Locus Tag:
PA1339
Molecular weight:
26.9 kDa
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamate and aspartate. Binds to both aspartate and glutamate
Gene Name:
gltI
Locus Tag:
PA1342
Molecular weight:
33.1 kDa
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
yfdZ
Locus Tag:
PA4715
Molecular weight:
46.1 kDa
Reactions
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate = pyruvate + L-glutamate.

Transporters

General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Probably part of a binding-protein-dependent transport system yecCS for an amino acid. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
yecC
Locus Tag:
PA5152
Molecular weight:
28.4 kDa
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for aspartate/glutamate; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
gltJ
Locus Tag:
PA1341
Molecular weight:
27.6 kDa
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for aspartate/glutamate; probably responsible for the translocation of the substrate across the membrane
Gene Name:
gltK
Locus Tag:
PA1340
Molecular weight:
24.6 kDa
General function:
Involved in glutamate:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the sodium-dependent uptake of extracellular glutamate
Gene Name:
gltS
Locus Tag:
PA3176
Molecular weight:
42.8 kDa
General function:
Involved in sodium:dicarboxylate symporter activity
Specific function:
This carrier protein is part of the Na(+)-independent, binding-protein-independent glutamate-aspartate transport system
Gene Name:
gltP
Locus Tag:
PA5479
Molecular weight:
47.6 kDa
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamate and aspartate. Probably responsible for energy coupling to the transport system
Gene Name:
gltL
Locus Tag:
PA1339
Molecular weight:
26.9 kDa
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Part of the binding-protein-dependent transport system for glutamate and aspartate. Binds to both aspartate and glutamate
Gene Name:
gltI
Locus Tag:
PA1342
Molecular weight:
33.1 kDa