Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:53 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000017
Identification
Name: Ammonia
Description:Ammonia is a colorless alkaline gas with a characteristic sharp smell. Ammonia is one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. It is an irritant with a characteristic pungent odor, which is widely used in industry. Because of its many uses, ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • Am-fol
  • Ammonia
  • Ammonia (conc 20% or greater)
  • Ammonia anhydrous
  • Ammonia gas
  • Ammonia inhalant
  • Ammonia solution
  • Ammonia solution strong (NF)
  • Ammonia solution strong [usan]
  • Ammonia water
  • Ammonia water (JP15)
  • Ammoniac [french]
  • Ammoniaca [italian]
  • Ammoniacum gummi
  • Ammoniak
  • Ammoniak kconzentrierter
  • Ammoniak [german]
  • Ammoniakgas
  • Ammonium ion
  • Amoniak [polish]
  • Anhydrous ammonia
  • Aromatic ammonia vaporole
  • Azane
  • Liquid ammonia
  • NH(3)
  • NH3
  • NH3
  • NH{3)
  • Nitro-sil
  • Primaeres amin
  • Sekundaeres amin
  • Spirit of hartshorn
  • Tertiaeres amin
Chemical Formula: H3N
Average Molecular Weight: 17.0305
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 17.026549101
InChI Key: QGZKDVFQNNGYKY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/H3N/h1H3
CAS number: 7664-41-7
IUPAC Name:ammonia
Traditional IUPAC Name: ammonia
SMILES:N
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other nonmetals'.
Kingdom Inorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
Class Homogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct Parent Homogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Homogeneous other non metal
  • Amine
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Liquid
Charge:1
Melting point: -77.7 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:482 mg/mL at 24 oC [DEAN,JA (1985)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.98ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area13.59 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity15.51 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.99 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Reactions:
4 Porphobilinogen + Water <> Hydroxymethylbilane +4 Ammonia
Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide <> ADP + Carbamoylphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + NAD
L-Serine <> Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
D-Serine <> Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
L-Glutamate + NAD + Water <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen ion
L-Glutamate + NADP + Water <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonia <> ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamine
L-Glutamine + Water <> L-Glutamate + Ammonia
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + Water + Oxygen <> Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
L-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen <> Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
(S)-Ureidoglycolic acid + Water <> Glyoxylic acid +2 Ammonia + Carbon dioxide
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine
L-Asparagine + Water <> L-Aspartic acid + Ammonia
L-Aspartic acid <> Fumaric acid + Ammonia
Cytidine triphosphate + Water <> Uridine triphosphate + Ammonia
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + Ammonia <> ADP + Phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate
L-Tryptophan + Water <> Indole + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
Ethanolamine <> Acetaldehyde + Ammonia
Glucosamine 6-phosphate + Water <> Fructose 6-phosphate + Ammonia
L-Cysteine + Water <> Hydrogen sulfide + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
Cytosine + Water <> Uracil + Ammonia
Chorismate + Ammonia <> 2-Aminobenzoic acid + Pyruvic acid + Water
L-Threonine <> 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammonia
O-Succinyl-L-homoserine + Water <> 2-Ketobutyric acid + Succinic acid + Ammonia
Inosinic acid + Ammonia + NADP <> Guanosine monophosphate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
Glycine + Tetrahydrofolic acid + NAD <> 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate
Adenine + Water <> Hypoxanthine + Ammonia
Niacinamide + Water <> Nicotinic acid + Ammonia
Cystathionine + Water <> L-Homocysteine + Ammonia + Pyruvic acid
L-Cystathionine + Water <> L-Homocysteine + Ammonia + Pyruvic acid
alpha-Amino acid + Water + Acceptor <> 2-Oxo acid + Ammonia + Reduced acceptor
D-Phenylalanine + Water + Acceptor <> Phenylpyruvic acid + Ammonia + Reduced acceptor
5-Methylcytosine + Water <> Thymine + Ammonia
Adenosine + Water <> Inosine + Ammonia
D-Glutamine + Water <> D-Glutamic acid + Ammonia
Guanine + Water <> Xanthine + Ammonia
Pyridoxamine + Water + Oxygen <> Pyridoxal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
D-Cysteine + Water <> Hydrogen sulfide + Ammonia + Pyruvic acid
Cytidine + Water <> Uridine + Ammonia
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen <> 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Allantoic acid + Water <> Ureidoglycine + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide
Deoxycytidine + Water <> Deoxyuridine + Ammonia
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen <> Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Deoxyadenosine + Water <> Deoxyinosine + Ammonia
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water <> Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Creatinine + Water <> N-Methylhydantoin + Ammonia
1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water <> 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
2,5-Diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine + Water + 2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phospho-D-ribosylamino)pyrimidine <> 5-Amino-6-(5'-phosphoribosylamino)uracil + Ammonia
S-Aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein + Tetrahydrofolic acid + S-Aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein <> Dihydrolipoylprotein + 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia
N2-Succinyl-L-arginine + 2 Water <> N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine + Carbon dioxide +2 Ammonia
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen <> 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Selenocystathionine + Water <> Selenohomocysteine + Ammonia + Pyruvic acid
Adenosine triphosphate + Nitrogen + 6 Reduced flavodoxin + Water <> Phosphate + ADP +6 Oxidized flavodoxin +2 Ammonia
Ureidoglycine + Water <> (S)-Ureidoglycolic acid + Ammonia
Ammonia + 2 Water + 6 Ferricytochrome c + Ferricytochrome c <> Nitrite +6 Ferrocytochrome c +6 Hydrogen ion + Ferrocytochrome c
gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + Water + Oxygen <> gamma-Glutamyl-gamma-butyraldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Aniline + Oxygen <> Pyrocatechol + Ammonia
5'-Deoxy-5-fluorocytidine + Water <> 5'-Deoxy-5-fluorouridine + Ammonia
D-Galactosamine 6-phosphate + Water <> D-Tagatose 6-phosphate + Ammonia
Se-Methylselenocysteine + Water <> Pyruvic acid + Ammonia + Methaneselenol
3-Aminoacrylate + Water <> Malonic semialdehyde + Ammonia
6-Carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin <> 7-Carboxy-7-carbaguanine + Ammonia + 7-Deaza-7-carboxyguanine
Ammonia + Water <> Ammonium + OH<SUP>-</SUP>
Dehydroglycine + Water > Glyoxylic acid + Ammonia
Ammonia + Hydrogen ion <> Ammonium
Carbamic acid + Hydrogen ion > Ammonia + Carbon dioxide
isoguanine + Water > Xanthine + Ammonia
2,3-diaminopropanoate + Water > Hydrogen ion + Ammonia + Pyruvic acid
L-Serine > Hydrogen ion + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
Hydrogen ion + Allantoic acid + Water > <i>S</i>-ureidoglycine + Ammonia + Carbon dioxide
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen > Hydrogen ion + Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
an aliphatic amine + Water + Oxygen > an aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen ion
Water + Oxygen + Phenylethylamine > Hydrogen ion + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia + Phenylacetaldehyde
L-Asparagine + Water > Hydrogen ion + L-Aspartic acid + Ammonia
L-Aspartic acid <> Hydrogen ion + Fumaric acid + Ammonia
Ammonia + Carbon dioxide + Adenosine triphosphate < Hydrogen ion + Carbamoylphosphate + ADP
L-Cystathionine + Water > Hydrogen ion + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia + L-Homocysteine
Water + dCTP > Ammonia + Deoxyuridine triphosphate
D-Cysteine + Water <> Pyruvic acid + Hydrogen sulfide + Ammonia + Hydrogen ion
D-Serine > Hydrogen ion + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
Ethanolamine > Hydrogen ion + Acetaldehyde + Ammonia
Glucosamine 6-phosphate + Water <> Hydrogen ion + Fructose 6-phosphate + Ammonia
L-Glutamine + Water > Hydrogen ion + L-Glutamate + Ammonia
L-Glutamate + Water + NADP <> Hydrogen ion + Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + Ammonia > Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate
Ammonia + Water + an oxidized electron acceptor < a reduced electron acceptor + hydroxylamine
L-Cysteine + Water > Pyruvic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen sulfide + Hydrogen ion
Hydrogen ion + 2-Ketobutyric acid + Succinic acid + Ammonia O-Succinyl-L-homoserine + Water
Niacinamide + Water > Hydrogen ion + Nicotinic acid + Ammonia
Nicotinamide ribotide + Water > Hydrogen ion + Nicotinamide ribotide + Ammonia
Water + Porphobilinogen <> Hydrogen ion + Ammonia + Hydroxymethylbilane
Oxygen + Water + Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate > Hydrogen ion + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia + Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Water + 2,5-Diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine > 5-Amino-6-(5'-phosphoribosylamino)uracil + Ammonia
7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine + Ammonia + Adenosine triphosphate > 7-Cyano-7-carbaguanine + ADP + Phosphate + Water
Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen carbonate + Ammonia > ADP + Phosphate + Carbamoylphosphate + Hydrogen ion
a primary amine + Water + Oxygen > an aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
6-Carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin + S-Adenosylmethionine + Hydrogen ion > 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine + 5'-Deoxyadenosine + L-Methionine + Ammonia
L-Threonine > Hydrogen ion + 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammonia
L-Tryptophan + Water <> Hydrogen ion + Indole + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
<i>S</i>-ureidoglycine + Water > Hydrogen ion + Ammonia + (S)-Ureidoglycolic acid
RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen > RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Cyanate + Carbonic acid + 2 Hydrogen ion > Ammonia +2 Carbon dioxide
A D-amino acid + Water + acceptor > a 2-oxo acid + Ammonia + reduced acceptor
L-Glutamate + Water + NADP > Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH
[Protein]-S(8)-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine + Tetrahydrofolic acid > [protein]-dihydrolipoyllysine + 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonia > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + L-Glutamine
Inosinic acid + Ammonia + NADP > Guanosine monophosphate + NADPH
Ammonia + 2 Water + 6 Ferricytochrome c > Nitrite +6 Ferrocytochrome c +7 Hydrogen ion
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + Ammonia > ADP + Inorganic phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate
7-Deaza-7-carboxyguanine + Ammonia + Adenosine triphosphate > 7-Cyano-7-carbaguanine + ADP + Inorganic phosphate + Water
6-Carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin > 7-Deaza-7-carboxyguanine + Ammonia
Iminobutyrate + Water > 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammonia
Ureidoacrylate peracid + Water > Peroxyaminoacrylate + Ammonia
(Z)-3-Ureidoacrylate + Water > 3-Aminoacrylate + Carbon dioxide + Ammonia
(Z)-2-Methyl-ureidoacrylate peracid + Water > (Z)-2-Methyl-peroxyaminoacrylate + Carbon dioxide + Ammonia
L-Threonine + 2-Aminobut-2-enoate + 2-Iminobutanoate + Water <> 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammonia
Adenosine triphosphate + Uridine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> ADP + Phosphate + Cytidine triphosphate + L-Glutamate
2 Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen carbonate + Water + Ammonia + Carbamic acid + Carboxyphosphate <>2 ADP + Phosphate + L-Glutamate + Carbamoylphosphate
Cyanate + Hydrogen carbonate + 2 Hydrogen ion + Carbamic acid <> Ammonia +2 Carbon dioxide
D-Amino acid + Water + Acceptor <> 2-Oxo acid + Ammonia + Reduced acceptor
L-Cystathionine + Water + 2-Aminoacrylic acid + 2-Iminopropanoate <> L-Homocysteine + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
L-Serine + 2-Aminoacrylic acid + 2-Iminopropanoate + Water <> Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
Cytidine + Water + Deoxycytidine <> Uridine + Ammonia + Deoxyuridine
D-Serine + 2-Aminoacrylic acid + 2-Iminopropanoate + Water <> Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
2,3-Diaminopropanoate + Water <> Pyruvic acid +2 Ammonia
2 L-Glutamate + NADP + Ammonia + Water <> L-Glutamine + alpha-Ketoglutarate + NADPH + Hydrogen ion
L-Tryptophan + Water + 2-Aminoacrylic acid + 2-Iminopropanoate <> Indole + Pyruvic acid + Ammonia
7-Deaza-7-carboxyguanine + Ammonia + Adenosine triphosphate <> 7-Cyano-7-carbaguanine + ADP + Phosphate + Water
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine + L-Glutamate
Ammonia + Water + Acceptor <> Hydroxylamine + Reduced acceptor
Ureidoacrylate peracid + Water + Carbamic acid + (Z)-2-Methyl-ureidoacrylate peracid <> Peroxyaminoacrylate + Carbon dioxide + Ammonia + (Z)-2-Methyl-peroxyaminoacrylate
Primary amine + Water + Oxygen <> Aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + Water + Oxygen + Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate <> Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Adenosine triphosphate + Xanthylic acid + L-Glutamine + Water + Ammonia <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Guanosine monophosphate + L-Glutamate
Water <> Ammonia
NMN + Water <> Nicotinamide ribotide + Ammonia
Ammonia + NAD + 3 NADP + 2 Water <> Nitrite + NADH +3 NADPH +5 Hydrogen ion
Nitrite + 3 NADH + 5 Hydrogen ion + Nitrite Ammonia +2 Water +3 NAD
Nitrite + 6 ferrocytochrome c + 7 Hydrogen ion + Nitrite + 6 Ferrocytochrome c <> Ammonia +6 ferricytochrome c +2 Water +6 Ferricytochrome c
Hydroxylamine + cytochrome c nitrite reductase <> Ammonia + Water + cytochrome c nitrite reductase
Ammonia + L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Oxoglutaric acid + L-Glutamate <> Phosphate + L-Glutamine + Adenosine diphosphate + ADP
Hydrogen ion + NADPH + Ammonia + NADPH <> Water + NADP + L-Glutamic acid + L-Glutamate
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamic acid + Ammonia + L-Glutamate
S-Aminomethyldihydrolipoylprotein; + Tetrahydrofolic acid + Tetrahydrofolic acid <> 5,10-Methylene-THF + Ammonia + dihydrolipoylprotein + 5,10-Methylene-THF
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Aspartic acid + Ammonia + L-Aspartic acid > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Asparagine + Pyrophosphate + L-Asparagine
L-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen + L-Aspartic acid > Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
L-Aspartic acid + L-Aspartic acid > Fumaric acid + Ammonia
Phenylpyruvic acid + Ammonia + cytochrome c nitrite reductase <> D-Phenylalanine + Water + cytochrome c nitrite reductase
Adenosine triphosphate + Nitrogen + 6 a reduced flavodoxin + Water <> Phosphate + Adenosine diphosphate + an oxidized flavodoxin +2 Ammonia + ADP
More...

Pathways:
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-88ae09421d46f7dea1c5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-88ae09421d46f7dea1c5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-88ae09421d46f7dea1c5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-5e750288766bc8c562ffView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-5e750288766bc8c562ffView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-5e750288766bc8c562ffView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-014i-9000000000-e0a6e51ead158714099bView in MoNA
References
References:
  • Albrecht J, Norenberg MD: Glutamine: a Trojan horse in ammonia neurotoxicity. Hepatology. 2006 Oct;44(4):788-94. Pubmed: 17006913
  • Brautbar N, Wu MP, Richter ED: Chronic ammonia inhalation and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Sep;58(9):592-6. Pubmed: 15369278
  • Cohen BI: The significance of ammonia/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ratio for normality and liver disorders. Med Hypotheses. 2002 Dec;59(6):757-8. Pubmed: 12445521
  • Cooper AJ: Role of glutamine in cerebral nitrogen metabolism and ammonia neurotoxicity. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2001;7(4):280-6. Pubmed: 11754523
  • Geier M, Bosch OJ, Boeckh J: Ammonia as an attractive component of host odour for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Chem Senses. 1999 Dec;24(6):647-53. Pubmed: 10587497
  • Grasten SM, Juntunen KS, Poutanen KS, Gylling HK, Miettinen TA, Mykkanen HM: Rye bread improves bowel function and decreases the concentrations of some compounds that are putative colon cancer risk markers in middle-aged women and men. J Nutr. 2000 Sep;130(9):2215-21. Pubmed: 10958815
  • Helewski K, Kowalczyk-Ziomek G, Konecki J: [Ammonia and GABA-ergic neurotransmission in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy] Wiad Lek. 2003;56(11-12):560-3. Pubmed: 15058165
  • Huizenga JR, Teelken AW, Tangerman A, de Jager AE, Gips CH, Jansen PL: Determination of ammonia in cerebrospinal fluid using the indophenol direct method. Mol Chem Neuropathol. 1998 Jun-Aug;34(2-3):169-77. Pubmed: 10327416
  • Huizenga JR, Vissink A, Kuipers EJ, Gips CH: Helicobacter pylori and ammonia concentrations of whole, parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva. Clin Oral Investig. 1999 Jun;3(2):84-7. Pubmed: 10803116
  • Hussein HS, Flickinger EA, Fahey GC Jr: Petfood applications of inulin and oligofructose. J Nutr. 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1454S-6S. Pubmed: 10395620
  • Iwata H, Ueda Y: Pharmacokinetic considerations in development of a bioartificial liver. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2004;43(4):211-25. Pubmed: 15005636
  • Kaiho T, Tanaka T, Tsuchiya S, Yanagisawa S, Takeuchi O, Miura M, Saigusa N, Miyazaki M: Effect of the herbal medicine Dai-kenchu-to for serum ammonia in hepatectomized patients. Hepatogastroenterology. 2005 Jan-Feb;52(61):161-5. Pubmed: 15783019
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kochar DK, Agarwal P, Kochar SK, Jain R, Rawat N, Pokharna RK, Kachhawa S, Srivastava T: Hepatocyte dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. QJM. 2003 Jul;96(7):505-12. Pubmed: 12881593
  • Norenberg MD, Rama Rao KV, Jayakumar AR: Ammonia neurotoxicity and the mitochondrial permeability transition. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004 Aug;36(4):303-7. Pubmed: 15377862
  • Nybo L, Dalsgaard MK, Steensberg A, Moller K, Secher NH: Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2005 Feb 15;563(Pt 1):285-90. Epub 2004 Dec 20. Pubmed: 15611036
  • Ohmoto K, Miyake I, Tsuduki M, Ohno S, Yamamoto S: Control of solitary gastric fundal varices and portosystemic encephalopathy accompanying liver cirrhosis by balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO): a case report. Hepatogastroenterology. 1999 Mar-Apr;46(26):1249-52. Pubmed: 10370701
  • Pita AM, Wakabayashi Y, Fernandez-Bustos MA, Virgili N, Riudor E, Soler J, Farriol M: Plasma urea-cycle-related amino acids, ammonium levels, and urinary orotic acid excretion in short-bowel patients managed with an oral diet. Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;22(1):93-8. Pubmed: 12553956
  • Remer T: Influence of nutrition on acid-base balance--metabolic aspects. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct;40(5):214-20. Pubmed: 11842946
  • Satoh M, Yokoya S, Hachiya Y, Hachiya M, Fujisawa T, Hoshino K, Saji T: Two hyperandrogenic adolescent girls with congenital portosystemic shunt. Eur J Pediatr. 2001 May;160(5):307-11. Pubmed: 11388600
  • Seiler N: Ammonia and Alzheimer's disease. Neurochem Int. 2002 Aug-Sep;41(2-3):189-207. Pubmed: 12020619
  • Shawcross DL, Damink SW, Butterworth RF, Jalan R: Ammonia and hepatic encephalopathy: the more things change, the more they remain the same. Metab Brain Dis. 2005 Sep;20(3):169-79. Pubmed: 16167195
  • Suarez I, Bodega G, Fernandez B: Glutamine synthetase in brain: effect of ammonia. Neurochem Int. 2002 Aug-Sep;41(2-3):123-42. Pubmed: 12020613
  • Verrotti A, Greco R, Morgese G, Chiarelli F: Carnitine deficiency and hyperammonemia in children receiving valproic acid with and without other anticonvulsant drugs. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1999;29(1):36-40. Pubmed: 10356662
  • Yoshida Y, Higashi T, Nouso K, Nakatsukasa H, Nakamura SI, Watanabe A, Tsuji T: Effects of zinc deficiency/zinc supplementation on ammonia metabolism in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Acta Med Okayama. 2001 Dec;55(6):349-55. Pubmed: 11779097
  • Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. Pubmed: 8579834
Synthesis Reference: Mohr, Rudolf. Ammonia separation from offgas obtained from melamine synthesis. U.S. (1971), 5 pp. CODEN: USXXAM US 3555784 19710119 CAN 77:50902 AN 1972:450902
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16134
HMDB IDHMDB00051
Pubchem Compound ID222
Kegg IDC00014
ChemSpider ID217
WikipediaAmmonia
BioCyc IDAMMONIA
EcoCyc IDAMMONIA
Ligand ExpoNH4

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH
Gene Name:
gdhA
Locus Tag:
PA4588
Molecular weight:
48.9 kDa
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ansB
Locus Tag:
PA1337
Molecular weight:
38.6 kDa
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in cyanate hydratase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide
Gene Name:
cynS
Locus Tag:
PA2052
Molecular weight:
16.8 kDa
Reactions
Cyanate + HCO(3)(-) + 2 H(+) = NH(3) + 2 CO(2).
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
trpE
Locus Tag:
PA0609
Molecular weight:
54.6 kDa
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate
Gene Name:
trpD
Locus Tag:
PA0650
Molecular weight:
37.4 kDa
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = anthranilate + pyruvate + L-glutamate.
N-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)-anthranilate + diphosphate = anthranilate + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.
General function:
Involved in D-serine ammonia-lyase activity
Specific function:
D-serine = pyruvate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
dsdA
Locus Tag:
PA3357
Molecular weight:
48.2 kDa
Reactions
D-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in GMP synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of GMP from XMP
Gene Name:
guaA
Locus Tag:
PA3769
Molecular weight:
58 kDa
Reactions
ATP + xanthosine 5'-phosphate + L-glutamine + H(2)O = AMP + diphosphate + GMP + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of alpha-ketobutyrate from threonine in a two-step reaction. The first step is a dehydration of threonine, followed by rehydration and liberation of ammonia. Deaminates L-threonine, but also L-serine to a lesser extent
Gene Name:
ilvA
Locus Tag:
PA1326
Molecular weight:
55.9 kDa
Reactions
L-threonine = 2-oxobutanoate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylbilane synthase activity
Specific function:
Tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PBG into the hydroxymethylbilane pre-uroporphyrinogen in several discrete steps
Gene Name:
hemC
Locus Tag:
PA5260
Molecular weight:
33.6 kDa
Reactions
4 porphobilinogen + H(2)O = hydroxymethylbilane + 4 NH(3).
General function:
Involved in oxidation-reduction process
Specific function:
Ammonium hydroxide + 3 NAD(P)(+) + H(2)O = nitrite + 3 NAD(P)H
Gene Name:
nirB
Locus Tag:
PA1781
Molecular weight:
89.7 kDa
Reactions
Ammonium hydroxide + 3 NAD(P)(+) + H(2)O = nitrite + 3 NAD(P)H.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2- oxoglutarate + NADPH
Gene Name:
gltB
Locus Tag:
PA5036
Molecular weight:
161.6 kDa
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2- oxoglutarate + NADPH
Gene Name:
gltD
Locus Tag:
PA5035
Molecular weight:
52.6 kDa
Reactions
2 L-glutamate + NADP(+) = L-glutamine + 2-oxoglutarate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in D-amino-acid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Oxidative deamination of D-amino acids
Gene Name:
dadA
Locus Tag:
PA5304
Molecular weight:
47.1 kDa
Reactions
A D-amino acid + H(2)O + acceptor = a 2-oxo acid + NH(3) + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
glsA2
Locus Tag:
PA1638
Molecular weight:
33 kDa
Reactions
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen
Gene Name:
pyrG
Locus Tag:
PA3637
Molecular weight:
59.6 kDa
Reactions
ATP + UTP + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + CTP.
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ansA
Locus Tag:
PA2253
Molecular weight:
34.8 kDa
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
Gene Name:
glnA
Locus Tag:
PA5119
Molecular weight:
51.9 kDa
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
General function:
Involved in nitrite reductase [NAD(P)H] activity
Specific function:
Required for activity of the reductase
Gene Name:
nirD
Locus Tag:
PA1780
Molecular weight:
11.6 kDa
Reactions
Ammonium hydroxide + 3 NAD(P)(+) + H(2)O = nitrite + 3 NAD(P)H.
General function:
Involved in aspartate ammonia-lyase activity
Specific function:
L-aspartate = fumarate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
aspA
Locus Tag:
PA5429
Molecular weight:
51.1 kDa
Reactions
L-aspartate = fumarate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine = acetaldehyde + NH(3)
Gene Name:
eutB
Locus Tag:
PA4024
Molecular weight:
50.2 kDa
Reactions
Ethanolamine = acetaldehyde + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of L-aspartate to iminoaspartate
Gene Name:
nadB
Locus Tag:
PA0761
Molecular weight:
60 kDa
Reactions
L-aspartate + O(2) = iminosuccinate + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Involved in L-serine ammonia-lyase activity
Specific function:
Deaminates also threonine, particularly when it is present in high concentration
Gene Name:
sdaA
Locus Tag:
PA2443
Molecular weight:
48.9 kDa
Reactions
L-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a key step in NAD biosynthesis, transforming deamido-NAD into NAD by a two-step reaction
Gene Name:
nadE
Locus Tag:
PA4920
Molecular weight:
29.7 kDa
Reactions
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + NH(3) = AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+).
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
Specific function:
Cytosine + H(2)O = uracil + NH(3)
Gene Name:
codA
Locus Tag:
PA0437
Molecular weight:
47.1 kDa
Reactions
Cytosine + H(2)O = uracil + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Converts 2,5-diamino-6-(ribosylamino)-4(3h)-pyrimidinone 5'-phosphate into 5-amino-6-(ribosylamino)-2,4(1h,3h)- pyrimidinedione 5'-phosphate
Gene Name:
ribD
Locus Tag:
PA4056
Molecular weight:
39.8 kDa
Reactions
2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine + H(2)O = 5-amino-6-(5-phosphoribosylamino)uracil + NH(3).
5-amino-6-(5-phospho-D-ribitylamino)uracil + NADP(+) = 5-amino-6-(5-phospho-D-ribosylamino)uracil + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in aminomethyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine
Gene Name:
gcvT
Locus Tag:
PA5215
Molecular weight:
38.9 kDa
Reactions
[Protein]-S(8)-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine + tetrahydrofolate = [protein]-dihydrolipoyllysine + 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in L-serine ammonia-lyase activity
Specific function:
Deaminates also threonine, particularly when it is present in high concentration
Gene Name:
sdaB
Locus Tag:
PA5379
Molecular weight:
49.2 kDa
Reactions
L-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) activity
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The P protein binds the alpha-amino group of glycine through its pyridoxal phosphate cofactor; CO(2) is released and the remaining methylamine moiety is then transferred to the lipoamide cofactor of the H protein
Gene Name:
gcvP
Locus Tag:
PA5213
Molecular weight:
104.7 kDa
Reactions
Glycine + H-protein-lipoyllysine = H-protein-S-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
ATP + NH(3) + CO(2) = ADP + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
arcC
Locus Tag:
PA5173
Molecular weight:
33.1 kDa
Reactions
ATP + NH(3) + CO(2) = ADP + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via the oxidation of L-glutamylputrescine
Gene Name:
puuB
Locus Tag:
PA2776
Molecular weight:
46.7 kDa
Reactions
Gamma-glutamylputrescine + H(2)O + O(2) = Gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyraldehyde + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Involved in N-succinylarginine dihydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of N(2)-succinylarginine into N(2)-succinylornithine, ammonia and CO(2)
Gene Name:
astB
Locus Tag:
PA0899
Molecular weight:
48.9 kDa
Reactions
N(2)-succinyl-L-arginine + 2 H(2)O = N(2)-succinyl-L-ornithine + 2 NH(3) + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of guanine, producing xanthine and ammonia
Gene Name:
guaD
Locus Tag:
PA1521
Molecular weight:
48.3 kDa
Reactions
Guanine + H(2)O = xanthine + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in ureidoglycolate hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the anaerobic utilization of allantoin. Reinforces the induction of genes involved in the degradation of allantoin and glyoxylate by producing glyoxylate
Gene Name:
allA
Locus Tag:
PA1514
Molecular weight:
19 kDa
Reactions
(S)-ureidoglycolate + H(2)O = glyoxylate + 2 NH(3) + CO(2).
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The H protein shuttles the methylamine group of glycine from the P protein to the T protein
Gene Name:
gcvH
Locus Tag:
PA5214
Molecular weight:
13.6 kDa
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of either pyridoxine 5'- phosphate (PNP) or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) into pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)
Gene Name:
pdxH
Locus Tag:
PA1049
Molecular weight:
24.9 kDa
Reactions
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + H(2)O + O(2) = pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate + O(2) = pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
cobB
Locus Tag:
PA1273
Molecular weight:
46.5 kDa
General function:
Energy production and conversion
Specific function:
Deaminates adenosine-34 to inosine in tRNA-Arg2. Mutation in this protein makes Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to the toxic proteins encoded by the gef gene family. Essential for cell viability
Gene Name:
tadA
Locus Tag:
PA4302
Molecular weight:
46.8 kDa
Reactions
Adenosine + H(2)O = inosine + NH(3).
General function:
pyridine nucleotide biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Has nicotinamidemononucleotide (NMN) aminohydrolase activity, not active on other substrates.
Gene Name:
pncC
Locus Tag:
PA3618
Molecular weight:
17.7 kDa
Reactions
Beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + H(2)O = beta-nicotinate D-ribonucleotide + NH(3)

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ammonium transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the uptake of ammonia
Gene Name:
amtB
Locus Tag:
PA5287
Molecular weight:
45.8 kDa