Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 11:54:53 AM
Metabolite IDPAMDB001595
Identification
Name: Ammonium
Description:Ammonium is an important source of nitrogen for many plant and microbial species. The ammonium (more obscurely: aminium) cation is a positively charged polyatomic cation with the chemical formula NH4+. It is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH3). Ammonium is also a general name for positively charged or protonated substituted amines and quaternary ammonium cations (NR4+), where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic radical groups (indicated by R).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • Ammonia ion
  • Ammonium
  • Ammonium chloride
  • AMMONIUM ION
  • Ammonium(1+)
  • Azanium
  • NH4+
  • NH4+
  • [NH4]+
Chemical Formula: H4N
Average Molecular Weight: 18.0385
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 18.034374133
InChI Key: QGZKDVFQNNGYKY-UHFFFAOYSA-O
InChI:InChI=1S/H3N/h1H3/p+1
CAS number: Not Available
IUPAC Name:azanium
Traditional IUPAC Name: azanium
SMILES:[NH4+]
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other nonmetals'.
Kingdom Inorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
Class Homogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct Parent Homogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Homogeneous other non metal
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Amine
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Not Available
Charge:1
Melting point: Not Available
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:10.2 mg/mL at 20 deg CPhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.98ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity16.31 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.38 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Reactions:
Adenosine triphosphate + Carbon dioxide + Ammonium <> ADP + Carbamoylphosphate +2 Hydrogen ion
L-Cystathionine + Water > L-Homocysteine + Ammonium + Pyruvic acid
L-Asparagine + Water > L-Aspartic acid + Ammonium
L-Glutamine + Water > L-Glutamate + Ammonium
Ethanolamine > Acetaldehyde + Ammonium
Glycine + NAD + Tetrahydrofolic acid > Carbon dioxide + 5,10-Methylene-THF + NADH + Ammonium
L-Threonine > 2-Ketobutyric acid + Ammonium
5 Hydrogen ion + 3 NADH + Nitrite >2 Water +3 NAD + Ammonium
L-Cysteine + Water > Hydrogen sulfide + Ammonium + Pyruvic acid
Adenosine triphosphate + L-Glutamate + Ammonium > ADP + L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + Phosphate
3 Ubiquinol-8 + 2 Hydrogen ion + Nitrite >3 Ubiquinone-8 +2 Water + Ammonium
3 Menaquinol 8 + 2 Hydrogen ion + Nitrite >3 Menaquinone 8 +2 Water + Ammonium
L-Serine > Ammonium + Pyruvic acid
Guanosine monophosphate + 2 Hydrogen ion + NADPH > Inosinic acid + NADP + Ammonium
Cytosine + Hydrogen ion + Water > Ammonium + Uracil
Cyanate + 3 Hydrogen ion + Hydrogen carbonate >2 Carbon dioxide + Ammonium
2,5-Diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine + Hydrogen ion + Water > 5-Amino-6-(5'-phosphoribosylamino)uracil + Ammonium
Adenosine triphosphate + 7-Deaza-7-carboxyguanine + Ammonium > ADP + Hydrogen ion + Water + Phosphate + 7-Cyano-7-carbaguanine
2 Hydrogen ion + Water + (S)-Ureidoglycolic acid > Carbon dioxide + Glyoxylic acid +2 Ammonium
Allantoic acid + 2 Hydrogen ion + 2 Water > Carbon dioxide +2 Ammonium + (S)-Ureidoglycolic acid
Glucosamine 6-phosphate + Water > Fructose 6-phosphate + Ammonium
3-Aminoacrylate + Hydrogen ion + Water > Malonic semialdehyde + Ammonium
D-Alanine + FAD + Water > FADH2 + Ammonium + Pyruvic acid
gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + Water + Oxygen > gamma-Glutamyl-gamma-butyraldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonium
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen > 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonium
Water + Oxygen + Tyramine > 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonium
Water + Oxygen + Phenylethylamine > Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonium + Phenylacetaldehyde
Adenosine + Hydrogen ion + Water > Inosine + Ammonium
Deoxyadenosine + Hydrogen ion + Water > Deoxyinosine + Ammonium
Water + Oxygen + Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate > Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonium + Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Ammonium > Adenosine monophosphate + Hydrogen ion + NAD + Pyrophosphate
2 Hydrogen ion + 2 Water + N2-Succinyl-L-arginine > Carbon dioxide +2 Ammonium + N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine
L-Glutamate + Water + NADP <> alpha-Ketoglutarate + Hydrogen ion + NADPH + Ammonium
Water + Niacinamide > Nicotinic acid + Ammonium
D-Cysteine + Water > Hydrogen sulfide + Ammonium + Pyruvic acid
dCTP + Hydrogen ion + Water > Deoxyuridine triphosphate + Ammonium
Deoxycytidine + Hydrogen ion + Water > Deoxyuridine + Ammonium
Cytidine + Hydrogen ion + Water > Ammonium + Uridine
D-Serine > Ammonium + Pyruvic acid
Guanine + Hydrogen ion + Water > Ammonium + Xanthine
Adenine + Hydrogen ion + Water > Hypoxanthine + Ammonium
Water + L-Tryptophan <> Indole + Ammonium + Pyruvic acid
L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonium > Adenosine monophosphate + L-Asparagine + Hydrogen ion + Pyrophosphate
Water + 4 Porphobilinogen > Hydroxymethylbilane +4 Ammonium
L-Aspartic acid > Fumaric acid + Ammonium
Adenosine triphosphate + Hydrogen ion + Water > Inosine triphosphate + Ammonium
Guanosine triphosphate + Hydrogen ion + Water > Ammonium + Xanthosine 5-triphosphate
dATP + Hydrogen ion + Water > 2'-Deoxyinosine triphosphate + Ammonium
Carbamic acid + 2 Hydrogen ion > Carbon dioxide + Ammonium
Ammonia + Water <> Ammonium + OH<SUP>-</SUP>
Ammonia + Hydrogen ion <> Ammonium
an electron-transfer-related quinone + Water + D-Alanine > an electron-transfer-related quinol + Ammonium + Pyruvic acid
Water + a D-amino acid + an electron-transfer-related quinone > Ammonium + a 2-oxo carboxylate + an electron-transfer-related quinol
NAD(P)H + Nitrite + Hydrogen ion > NAD(P)<sup>+</sup> + Ammonium + Water
L-Glutamic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonium + L-Glutamate > L-Glutamine + Hydrogen ion + Adenosine diphosphate + Phosphate + ADP
Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Ammonium + Hydrogen ion + NADPH > L-Glutamic acid + Water + NADP + L-Glutamate
L-Aspartic acid + L-Aspartic acid > Fumaric acid + Ammonium
D-Alanine + Water + Quinone > Ammonium + Pyruvic acid + Hydroquinone
D-Alanine + Water + an electron-transfer quinone > Ammonium + Pyruvic acid + electron-transfer quinol
N2-succinyl-L-arginine + 2 Water + 2 Hydrogen ion + N2-succinyl-L-arginine > Carbon dioxide +2 Ammonium + N2-Succinyl-L-ornithine
gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + Oxygen + Water > 4-(γ-glutamylamino)butanal + Ammonium + Hydrogen peroxide
L-Aspartic acid + Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonium + L-Aspartic acid > L-Asparagine + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Hydrogen ion + L-Asparagine
Allantoic acid + Water + 2 Hydrogen ion > Carbon dioxide + Ammonium + S-ureidoglycine
S-ureidoglycine + Water > Ammonium + (S)-Ureidoglycolic acid
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide + Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonium > Hydrogen ion + Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + NAD
beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + Water + NMN > Ammonium + nicotinate beta-D-ribonucleotide + Nicotinamide ribotide
Glucosamine 6-phosphate + Water > Ammonium + D-tagatofuranose 6-phosphate
L-Asparagine + Water + L-Asparagine > L-Aspartic acid + Ammonium + L-Aspartic acid
7-Deaza-7-carboxyguanine + Adenosine triphosphate + Ammonium > Water + Phosphate + Adenosine diphosphate + Hydrogen ion + 7-Cyano-7-carbaguanine + ADP
More...

Pathways:
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-865a280eac64792eb43eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-865a280eac64792eb43eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9000000000-865a280eac64792eb43eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-b764e01bee53b44bf449View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-b764e01bee53b44bf449View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-b764e01bee53b44bf449View in MoNA
References
References:
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
Synthesis Reference: Not Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Not Available
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID28938
HMDB IDHMDB41827
Pubchem Compound ID223
Kegg IDC01342
ChemSpider ID218
WikipediaAmmonium
BioCyc IDAMMONIUM
EcoCyc IDAMMONIUM

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH
Gene Name:
gdhA
Locus Tag:
PA4588
Molecular weight:
48.9 kDa
Reactions
L-glutamate + H(2)O + NADP(+) = 2-oxoglutarate + NH(3) + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ansB
Locus Tag:
PA1337
Molecular weight:
38.6 kDa
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in cyanate hydratase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide
Gene Name:
cynS
Locus Tag:
PA2052
Molecular weight:
16.8 kDa
Reactions
Cyanate + HCO(3)(-) + 2 H(+) = NH(3) + 2 CO(2).
General function:
Involved in D-serine ammonia-lyase activity
Specific function:
D-serine = pyruvate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
dsdA
Locus Tag:
PA3357
Molecular weight:
48.2 kDa
Reactions
D-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of alpha-ketobutyrate from threonine in a two-step reaction. The first step is a dehydration of threonine, followed by rehydration and liberation of ammonia. Deaminates L-threonine, but also L-serine to a lesser extent
Gene Name:
ilvA
Locus Tag:
PA1326
Molecular weight:
55.9 kDa
Reactions
L-threonine = 2-oxobutanoate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) from chorismate and glutamine
Gene Name:
pabB
Locus Tag:
PA1758
Molecular weight:
49.6 kDa
Reactions
Chorismate + L-glutamine = 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate.
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylbilane synthase activity
Specific function:
Tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PBG into the hydroxymethylbilane pre-uroporphyrinogen in several discrete steps
Gene Name:
hemC
Locus Tag:
PA5260
Molecular weight:
33.6 kDa
Reactions
4 porphobilinogen + H(2)O = hydroxymethylbilane + 4 NH(3).
General function:
Involved in oxidation-reduction process
Specific function:
Ammonium hydroxide + 3 NAD(P)(+) + H(2)O = nitrite + 3 NAD(P)H
Gene Name:
nirB
Locus Tag:
PA1781
Molecular weight:
89.7 kDa
Reactions
Ammonium hydroxide + 3 NAD(P)(+) + H(2)O = nitrite + 3 NAD(P)H.
General function:
Involved in D-amino-acid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Oxidative deamination of D-amino acids
Gene Name:
dadA
Locus Tag:
PA5304
Molecular weight:
47.1 kDa
Reactions
A D-amino acid + H(2)O + acceptor = a 2-oxo acid + NH(3) + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in glutaminase activity
Specific function:
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
glsA2
Locus Tag:
PA1638
Molecular weight:
33 kDa
Reactions
L-glutamine + H(2)O = L-glutamate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in asparaginase activity
Specific function:
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
ansA
Locus Tag:
PA2253
Molecular weight:
34.8 kDa
Reactions
L-asparagine + H(2)O = L-aspartate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific function:
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
Gene Name:
glnA
Locus Tag:
PA5119
Molecular weight:
51.9 kDa
Reactions
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine.
General function:
Involved in nitrite reductase [NAD(P)H] activity
Specific function:
Required for activity of the reductase
Gene Name:
nirD
Locus Tag:
PA1780
Molecular weight:
11.6 kDa
Reactions
Ammonium hydroxide + 3 NAD(P)(+) + H(2)O = nitrite + 3 NAD(P)H.
General function:
Involved in aspartate ammonia-lyase activity
Specific function:
L-aspartate = fumarate + NH(3)
Gene Name:
aspA
Locus Tag:
PA5429
Molecular weight:
51.1 kDa
Reactions
L-aspartate = fumarate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine = acetaldehyde + NH(3)
Gene Name:
eutB
Locus Tag:
PA4024
Molecular weight:
50.2 kDa
Reactions
Ethanolamine = acetaldehyde + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in L-serine ammonia-lyase activity
Specific function:
Deaminates also threonine, particularly when it is present in high concentration
Gene Name:
sdaA
Locus Tag:
PA2443
Molecular weight:
48.9 kDa
Reactions
L-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in NAD+ synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a key step in NAD biosynthesis, transforming deamido-NAD into NAD by a two-step reaction
Gene Name:
nadE
Locus Tag:
PA4920
Molecular weight:
29.7 kDa
Reactions
ATP + deamido-NAD(+) + NH(3) = AMP + diphosphate + NAD(+).
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
Specific function:
Cytosine + H(2)O = uracil + NH(3)
Gene Name:
codA
Locus Tag:
PA0437
Molecular weight:
47.1 kDa
Reactions
Cytosine + H(2)O = uracil + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Converts 2,5-diamino-6-(ribosylamino)-4(3h)-pyrimidinone 5'-phosphate into 5-amino-6-(ribosylamino)-2,4(1h,3h)- pyrimidinedione 5'-phosphate
Gene Name:
ribD
Locus Tag:
PA4056
Molecular weight:
39.8 kDa
Reactions
2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine + H(2)O = 5-amino-6-(5-phosphoribosylamino)uracil + NH(3).
5-amino-6-(5-phospho-D-ribitylamino)uracil + NADP(+) = 5-amino-6-(5-phospho-D-ribosylamino)uracil + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in aminomethyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine
Gene Name:
gcvT
Locus Tag:
PA5215
Molecular weight:
38.9 kDa
Reactions
[Protein]-S(8)-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine + tetrahydrofolate = [protein]-dihydrolipoyllysine + 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in L-serine ammonia-lyase activity
Specific function:
Deaminates also threonine, particularly when it is present in high concentration
Gene Name:
sdaB
Locus Tag:
PA5379
Molecular weight:
49.2 kDa
Reactions
L-serine = pyruvate + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in glycine dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) activity
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The P protein binds the alpha-amino group of glycine through its pyridoxal phosphate cofactor; CO(2) is released and the remaining methylamine moiety is then transferred to the lipoamide cofactor of the H protein
Gene Name:
gcvP
Locus Tag:
PA5213
Molecular weight:
104.7 kDa
Reactions
Glycine + H-protein-lipoyllysine = H-protein-S-aminomethyldihydrolipoyllysine + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
ATP + NH(3) + CO(2) = ADP + carbamoyl phosphate
Gene Name:
arcC
Locus Tag:
PA5173
Molecular weight:
33.1 kDa
Reactions
ATP + NH(3) + CO(2) = ADP + carbamoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via the oxidation of L-glutamylputrescine
Gene Name:
puuB
Locus Tag:
PA2776
Molecular weight:
46.7 kDa
Reactions
Gamma-glutamylputrescine + H(2)O + O(2) = Gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyraldehyde + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Involved in N-succinylarginine dihydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of N(2)-succinylarginine into N(2)-succinylornithine, ammonia and CO(2)
Gene Name:
astB
Locus Tag:
PA0899
Molecular weight:
48.9 kDa
Reactions
N(2)-succinyl-L-arginine + 2 H(2)O = N(2)-succinyl-L-ornithine + 2 NH(3) + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of guanine, producing xanthine and ammonia
Gene Name:
guaD
Locus Tag:
PA1521
Molecular weight:
48.3 kDa
Reactions
Guanine + H(2)O = xanthine + NH(3).
General function:
Involved in ureidoglycolate hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the anaerobic utilization of allantoin. Reinforces the induction of genes involved in the degradation of allantoin and glyoxylate by producing glyoxylate
Gene Name:
allA
Locus Tag:
PA1514
Molecular weight:
19 kDa
Reactions
(S)-ureidoglycolate + H(2)O = glyoxylate + 2 NH(3) + CO(2).
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the degradation of glycine. The H protein shuttles the methylamine group of glycine from the P protein to the T protein
Gene Name:
gcvH
Locus Tag:
PA5214
Molecular weight:
13.6 kDa
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of either pyridoxine 5'- phosphate (PNP) or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) into pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)
Gene Name:
pdxH
Locus Tag:
PA1049
Molecular weight:
24.9 kDa
Reactions
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + H(2)O + O(2) = pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate + O(2) = pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + H(2)O(2).
General function:
pyridine nucleotide biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Has nicotinamidemononucleotide (NMN) aminohydrolase activity, not active on other substrates.
Gene Name:
pncC
Locus Tag:
PA3618
Molecular weight:
17.7 kDa
Reactions
Beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + H(2)O = beta-nicotinate D-ribonucleotide + NH(3)

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ammonium transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the uptake of ammonia
Gene Name:
amtB
Locus Tag:
PA5287
Molecular weight:
45.8 kDa