Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:54 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000012
Name: Acetic acid
Description:Acetic acid is one of the simplest carboxylic acids. The acetyl group, derived from acetic acid, is fundamental to the biochemistry of virtually all forms of life. When bound to coenzyme A it forms acetyl-CoA, which is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. However, the concentration of free acetic acid in cells is kept at a low level to avoid disrupting the control of the pH of the cell contents. Acetic acid is produced and excreted by certain bacteria, notably the Acetobacter genus and Clostridium acetobutylicum. These bacteria are found universally in foodstuffs, water, and soil, and acetic acid is produced naturally as fruits and some other foods spoil. (Wikipedia) Acetic acid, or more accurately, acetate, a derivative of acetic acid, can be produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa through fermentation in glucose metabolism. (KEGG, PMID 18600996)
  • Acetate
  • Acetic acid
  • Ethanoate
  • Ethanoic acid
  • Ethylate
  • Ethylic acid
  • Glacial acetate
  • Glacial acetic acid
  • Kyselina octova
  • Methanecarboxylate
  • Methanecarboxylic acid
  • Vinegar
  • Vinegar acid
Chemical Formula: C2H4O2
Average Molecular Weight: 60.052
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 60.021129372
CAS number: 64-19-7
IUPAC Name:acetic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name: acetic acid
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carboxylic acids. These are compounds containing a carboxylic acid group with the formula -C(=O)OH.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Class Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acids
Direct Parent Carboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Liquid
Melting point: 16.6 °C
Experimental Properties:
Water Solubility:1000.0 mg/mL [MERCK INDEX (1996)]PhysProp
LogP:-0.17 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility323.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity12.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.34 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
O-Acetylserine + Thiosulfate <> Cysteine-S-sulfate + Acetic acid
Pyruvic acid + Ubiquinone-1 + Water <> Acetic acid + Ubiquinol-8 + Carbon dioxide
O-Acetylserine + Hydrogen selenide <> Selenocysteine + Acetic acid
O-Acetylserine + Thiosulfate + Thioredoxin + Hydrogen ion <> L-Cysteine + Sulfite + Thioredoxin disulfide + Acetic acid
3-Hydroxy-5-oxohexanoate + Acetyl-CoA <> 3-Hydroxy-5-oxohexanoyl-CoA + Acetic acid
N-Acetyl-L-citrulline + Water <> Acetic acid + Citrulline
poly-&beta;-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + Water Hydrogen ion + partially N-deacetylated poly-&beta;-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + Acetic acid
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + Acetic acid <> a fatty acid + Acetyl-CoA
Water + an acetic ester > an alcohol + Acetic acid + Hydrogen ion
Pyruvic acid + Water + a ubiquinone > Carbon dioxide + a ubiquinol + Acetic acid
Acetic acid + Carbon dioxide + Hydrogen ion <> Pyruvic acid + Water
N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-phosphate + Water > D-Galactosamine 6-phosphate + Acetic acid
Acyl-CoA + Acetic acid > a fatty acid anion + Acetyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + Citric acid > Acetic acid + (3S)-Citryl-CoA
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + [citrate (pro-3S)-lyase](thiol form) > Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + [citrate (pro-3S)-lyase](acetyl form)
Pyruvic acid + Ubiquinone-10 + Water > Acetic acid + Carbon dioxide + Ubiquinol-1
Acyl-CoA + Acetic acid <> Fatty acid anion + Acetyl-CoA
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetic acid + Citrate (pro-3S)-lyase (thiol form) <> Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Citrate (pro-3S)-lyase (acetyl form)
Acetyl-CoA + Oxalic acid <> Acetic acid + Oxalyl-CoA
Acetyl-CoA + 3-Hydroxy-5-oxohexanoate > Acetic acid + 3-Hydroxy-5-oxohexanoyl-CoA + 3-Hydroxy-5-oxohexanoyl-CoA
N-Acetylornithine + Water > Acetic acid + L-Ornithine monochlorohydrate/ornithine
N-Acetylornithine + Water > Ornithine + Acetic acid + Ornithine
O-Acetylserine > Hydrogen ion + Acetic acid + L-Cysteine
UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + Water > Acetic acid + UDP-3-O-(3-Hydroxytetradecanoyl)-D-glucosamine
N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 6-Phosphate + Water + N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine 6-Phosphate > Acetic acid + Glucosamine 6-phosphate
O-Acetylserine + Thiosulfate + Thiosulfate > Cysteine-S-sulfate + Acetic acid

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-044b361cb9f5775c43feView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01ox-9000000000-6437eb5f6a38c054dc37View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-0505dfa8ee07a18a3ef3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0007-9000000000-a0d65dd4e056c1482aaaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a845ea0157abb3d7783bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-42ec023f024176a1c692View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-2bbab52cd9d076b89b2cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-fb6d2f6298dd5bc37c2eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-bc47c47ade16451259c7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01oy-9000000000-181ada67a3e5798d4419View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
  • Camoutsis C, Trafalis D, Pairas G, Papageorgiou A: On the formation of 4-[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl acetic acid esters of hecogenin and aza-homo-hecogenin and their antileukemic activity. Farmaco. 2005 Oct;60(10):826-9. Epub 2005 Aug 31. Pubmed: 16139280
  • Commodari F, Arnold DL, Sanctuary BC, Shoubridge EA: 1H NMR characterization of normal human cerebrospinal fluid and the detection of methylmalonic acid in a vitamin B12 deficient patient. NMR Biomed. 1991 Aug;4(4):192-200. Pubmed: 1931558
  • eMedicine:
  • Fan DD, Luo Y, Mi Y, Ma XX, Shang L: Characteristics of fed-batch cultures of recombinant Escherichia coli containing human-like collagen cDNA at different specific growth rates. Biotechnol Lett. 2005 Jun;27(12):865-70. Pubmed: 16086249
  • Han, K., Lim, H. C., Hong, J. (1992). "Acetic acid formation in Escherichia coli fermentation." Biotechnol Bioeng 39:663-671. Pubmed: 18600996
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Li M, Pan XL, Wang LL, Feng Y, Huang N, Wu Q, Li X, Wang BY: [Study of antmicrobial mechanisms of human cervical mucus: isolation and characterization of antibacterial polypeptides] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005 Apr 27;85(16):1109-12. Pubmed: 16029568
  • Muniz-Junqueira MI, Braga Lopes C, Magalhaes CA, Schleicher CC, Veiga JP: Acute and chronic influence of hemodialysis according to the membrane used on phagocytic function of neutrophils and monocytes and pro-inflammatory cytokines production in chronic renal failure patients. Life Sci. 2005 Nov 4;77(25):3141-55. Epub 2005 Jul 11. Pubmed: 16005905
  • Nicholson JK, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma. Anal Chem. 1995 Mar 1;67(5):793-811. Pubmed: 7762816
  • Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. Pubmed: 12097436
  • Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, Gupta A, Kumar R, Nigam A, Kumar R, Mandal SK, Roy R: Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. NMR Biomed. 2005 Jun;18(4):213-25. Pubmed: 15627241
  • Sugawara G, Nagino M, Nishio H, Ebata T, Takagi K, Asahara T, Nomoto K, Nimura Y: Perioperative synbiotic treatment to prevent postoperative infectious complications in biliary cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg. 2006 Nov;244(5):706-14. Pubmed: 17060763
  • Syrjanen K, Naud P, Derchain S, Roteli-Martins C, Longatto-Filho A, Tatti S, Branca M, Erzen M, Hammes LS, Matos J, Gontijo R, Sarian L, Braganca J, Arlindo FC, Maeda MY, Lorincz A, Dores GB, Costa S, Syrjanen S: Comparing PAP smear cytology, aided visual inspection, screening colposcopy, cervicography and HPV testing as optional screening tools in Latin America. Study design and baseline data of the LAMS study. Anticancer Res. 2005 Sep-Oct;25(5):3469-80. Pubmed: 16101165
  • Vaca G, Hernandez A, Ibarra B, Velazquez A, Olivares N, Sanchez-Corona J, Medina C, Cantu JM: Detection of inborn errors of metabolism in 1,117 patients studied because of suspected inherited disease. Arch Invest Med (Mex). 1981;12(3):341-8. Pubmed: 7294941
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
  • Yagi K, Nakamura A, Sekine A: [Magnification endoscopy diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus with methylene blue and acetic acid] Nippon Rinsho. 2005 Aug;63(8):1411-5. Pubmed: 16101231
  • Yri OE, Bjoro T, Fossa SD: Failure to achieve castration levels in patients using leuprolide acetate in locally advanced prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2006 Jan;49(1):54-8; discussion 58. Epub 2005 Nov 15. Pubmed: 16314038
Synthesis Reference: Law, David John. Process for the preparation of carboxylic acids and/or derivatives thereof. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 14pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID176
Kegg IDC00033
ChemSpider ID171
Ligand ExpoCM


General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Pyruvate + ferricytochrome b1 + H(2)O = acetate + CO(2) + ferrocytochrome b1
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
62.3 kDa
Pyruvate + ubiquinone + H(2)O = acetate + CO(2) + ubiquinol.
General function:
Involved in kinase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the activation of acetate to acetyl CoA and the secretion of acetate. During anaerobic growth of the organism, this enzyme is also involved in the synthesis of most of the ATP formed catabolically
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
42.4 kDa
ATP + acetate = ADP + acetyl phosphate.
ATP + propanoate = ADP + propanoyl phosphate.
General function:
Involved in UDP-3-O-[3-hydroxymyristoyl] N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase activity
Specific function:
The key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a phosphorylated glycolipid that anchors the lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of the cell. Degraded by FtsH; when the activity of FtsH is reduced too much lipid A and not enough phospholipids are made (both pathways use the same precursor), which is lethal
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
33.4 kDa
UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine + H(2)O = UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)-glucosamine + acetate.
General function:
Involved in cysteine biosynthetic process from serine
Specific function:
O(3)-acetyl-L-serine + H(2)S = L-cysteine + acetate
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
34.3 kDa
O(3)-acetyl-L-serine + H(2)S = L-cysteine + acetate.
3-chloro-L-alanine + thioglycolate = S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine + chloride.
General function:
Involved in cysteine biosynthetic process from serine
Specific function:
Two cysteine synthase enzymes are found. Both catalyze the same reaction. Cysteine synthase B can also use thiosulfate in place of sulfide to give cysteine thiosulfonate as a product
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
32.4 kDa
O(3)-acetyl-L-serine + H(2)S = L-cysteine + acetate.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine. Was previously shown to have a weak but measurable ALDH enzyme activity that prefers NADP over NAD as coenzyme
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
53.1 kDa
Gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD(+) + H(2)O = gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyrate + NADH.
An aldehyde + NAD(P)(+) + H(2)O = a carboxylate + NAD(P)H.
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Displays a broad specificity and can also deacylate substrates such as acetylarginine, acetylhistidine or acetylglutamate semialdehyde
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
42.2 kDa
N(2)-acetyl-L-ornithine + H(2)O = acetate + L-ornithine.
General function:
Involved in acetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Enables the cell to use acetate during aerobic growth to generate energy via the TCA cycle, and biosynthetic compounds via the glyoxylate shunt. Acetylates CheY, the response regulator involved in flagellar movement and chemotaxis
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
71.8 kDa
ATP + acetate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA.
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes two reactions:the first one is the production of beta-formyl glycinamide ribonucleotide (GAR) from formate, ATP and beta GAR; the second, a side reaction, is the production of acetyl phosphate and ADP from acetate and ATP
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
42.3 kDa
Formate + ATP + 5'-phospho-ribosylglycinamide = 5'-phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide + ADP + diphosphate.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADP-dependent oxidation of diverse aldehydes such as chloroacetaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, benzaldehyde, mafosfamide, 4- hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. Its preferred substrates are acetaldehyde and chloroacetaldehyde
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
54.9 kDa
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
12.1 kDa


General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Transports acetate. Also able to transport glycolate
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
58.7 kDa