Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 11:54:54 AM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000043
Name: Glyoxylic acid
Description:Glyoxylic acid or oxoacetic acid is an organic compound that is both an aldehyde and a carboxylic acid. It is an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle, which enables certain organisms to convert fatty acids into carbohydrates.The conjugate base of gloxylic acid is known as glyoxylate. This compound is an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle, which enables organisms, such as bacteria, fungi and plants to convert fatty acids into carbohydrates. Glyoxylate is the byproduct of the amidation process in biosynthesis of several amidated peptides. The glyoxylate cycle is a metabolic pathway occurring in plants, and several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeast.
  • A-Ketoacetate
  • A-Ketoacetic acid
  • Alpha-Ketoacetate
  • Alpha-Ketoacetic acid
  • Formylformate
  • Formylformic acid
  • Glyox
  • Glyoxalate
  • Glyoxalic acid
  • Glyoxylate
  • Glyoxylic acid
  • Oxalaldehydate
  • Oxalaldehydic acid
  • Oxoacetate
  • Oxoacetic acid
  • Oxoethanoate
  • Oxoethanoic acid
  • α-Ketoacetate
  • α-Ketoacetic acid
Chemical Formula: C2H2O3
Average Molecular Weight: 74.0355
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 74.00039393
CAS number: 298-12-4
IUPAC Name:2-oxoacetic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name: glyoxylic acid
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carboxylic acids. These are compounds containing a carboxylic acid group with the formula -C(=O)OH.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Class Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acids
Direct Parent Carboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Short-chain aldehyde
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aldehyde
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Liquid
Melting point: -93 °C
Experimental Properties:
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility224.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity13.5 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability5.35 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-03di-3900000000-16bc69e0e9d51e54854eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-72c34bc34b8c3341442bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-920a0dc738957201d4baView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-857c7f2d72c3d4c10dbfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-9b5825d5d9d8b094fefaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-de556f03ea428deff5e2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00dl-9000000000-74b253632894213d473cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-a8cc2c89793394fdf9e4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-d20183b08984d4766e8aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ea9968e3933fd734506cView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-cef8efc477a2500a7eadView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-3817c0865df629803538View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-bb935f857fb5fd08c7e3View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-004l-9000000000-a04bafbf8e0b990094a3View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
  • Arvesen A, Maehlen J, Rosen L, Aas P: Early and late functional and histopathological perturbations in the rabbit ear-artery following local cold injury. Vasa. 1999 May;28(2):85-94. Pubmed: 10409918
  • Arvesen A, Maehlen J, Rosen L, Aas P: Myointimal hyperplasia and sympathetic reinnervation following local cold injury and rapid rewarming in the rabbit central ear artery. Vasa. 2001 Jul;30(3):176-83. Pubmed: 11582947
  • Booth ED, Dofferhoff O, Boogaard PJ, Watson WP: Comparison of the metabolism of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid in vitro by precision-cut tissue slices from female rat, rabbit and human liver. Xenobiotica. 2004 Jan;34(1):31-48. Pubmed: 14742135
  • Borondy PE, Michniewicz BM: Metabolic disposition of isoxicam in man, monkey, dog, and rat. Drug Metab Dispos. 1984 Jul-Aug;12(4):444-51. Pubmed: 6148211
  • Bruzzese FJ, Dix JA, Rava RP, Cerny LC: Resonance Raman spectroscopy of chemically modified hemoglobins. Biomater Artif Cells Artif Organs. 1990;18(2):143-56. Pubmed: 2369642
  • Davis WL, Goodman DB: Evidence for the glyoxylate cycle in human liver. Anat Rec. 1992 Dec;234(4):461-8. Pubmed: 1456449
  • Holmes E, Foxall PJ, Spraul M, Farrant RD, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 750 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy characterisation of the complex metabolic pattern of urine from patients with inborn errors of metabolism: 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and maple syrup urine disease. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1997 Jul;15(11):1647-59. Pubmed: 9260660
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Lee SH, Kim SO, Chung BC: Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of urinary oxoacids using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)oxime-trimethylsilyl ester derivatization and cation-exchange chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1998 Nov 20;719(1-2):1-7. Pubmed: 9869358
  • Mentasti E, Savigliano M, Marangella M, Petrarulo M, Linari F: High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of glyoxylic acid and other carbonyl compounds in urine. J Chromatogr. 1987 Jul 3;417(2):253-60. Pubmed: 3654878
  • Motomiya Y, Oyama N, Iwamoto H, Uchimura T, Maruyama I: N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine in blood from maintenance hemodialysis patients may contribute to dialysis-related amyloidosis. Kidney Int. 1998 Oct;54(4):1357-66. Pubmed: 9767556
  • Naghizadeh F, Barlow D, King J: The reduction of oxo-acids by human tissue extracts. Clin Biochem. 1976 Apr;9(2):65-6. Pubmed: 1261003
  • Popov, V. N., Moskalev, E. A., Shevchenko, M. I. u., Eprintsev, A. T. (2005). "[Comparative analysis of the glyoxylate cycle clue enzyme isocitrate lyases from organisms of different systemic groups]." Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol 41:507-513. Pubmed: 16396466
  • Schmitt A, Gasic-Milenkovic J, Schmitt J: Characterization of advanced glycation end products: mass changes in correlation to side chain modifications. Anal Biochem. 2005 Nov 1;346(1):101-6. Epub 2005 Aug 15. Pubmed: 16168380
  • Tainio H, Vaalasti A, Rechardt L: The distribution of sympathetic adrenergic, tyrosine hydroxylase- and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive nerves in human axillary sweat glands. Histochemistry. 1986;85(2):117-20. Pubmed: 2875046
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
Synthesis Reference: Jie, Yuanping; Song, Zhen. Method for preparing glyoxylic acid. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 5pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID760
Kegg IDC00048
ChemSpider ID740
WikipediaGlyoxylic acid
Ligand ExpoGLV


General function:
Involved in isocitrate lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of succinate and glyoxylate from isocitrate, a key step of the glyoxylate cycle. May be involved in the assimilation of one-carbon compounds via the isocitrate lyase- positive serine pathway
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
58.9 kDa
Isocitrate = succinate + glyoxylate.
General function:
Involved in tartronate-semialdehyde synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of glyoxylate to give 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropanoate (also termed tartronate semialdehyde)
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
64.4 kDa
2 glyoxylate = tartronate semialdehyde + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
53.7 kDa
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Accounts for almost the entire malate-synthesizing activity in cells metabolizing glyoxylate
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
78.7 kDa
Acetyl-CoA + H(2)O + glyoxylate = (S)-malate + CoA.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate into glycolate and glycerate, respectively. Can also reduce 2,5-diketo-D-gluconate (25DKG) to 5-keto-D- gluconate (5KDG), 2-keto-D-gluconate (2KDG) to D-gluconate, and 2- keto-L-gulonate (2KLG) to L-idonate (IA), but it is not its physiological function. Inactive towards 2-oxoglutarate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 5-keto-D-gluconate, D-fructose and L- sorbose. Activity with NAD is very low
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
35.6 kDa
Glycolate + NADP(+) = glyoxylate + NADPH.
D-glycerate + NAD(P)(+) = hydroxypyruvate + NAD(P)H.
D-gluconate + NADP(+) = 2-dehydro-D-gluconate + NADPH.
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
44.7 kDa
General function:
Involved in ureidoglycolate hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the anaerobic utilization of allantoin. Reinforces the induction of genes involved in the degradation of allantoin and glyoxylate by producing glyoxylate
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
19 kDa
(S)-ureidoglycolate + H(2)O = glyoxylate + 2 NH(3) + CO(2).
General function:
Involved in alkanesulfonate monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Involved in desulfonation of aliphatic sulfonates. Catalyzes the conversion of pentanesulfonic acid to sulfite and pentaldehyde and is able to desulfonate a wide range of sulfonated substrates including C-2 to C-10 unsubstituted linear alkanesulfonates, substituted ethanesulfonic acids and sulfonated buffers
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
41.6 kDa
An alkanesufonate (R-CH(2)-SO(3)H) + FMNH(2) + O(2) = an aldehyde (R-CHO) + FMN + sulfite + H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
38.2 kDa