Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:53 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB001640
Identification
Name: Hydrogen peroxide
Description:Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the simplest peroxide (a compound with an oxygen-oxygen single bond). It is also a strong oxidizer. Hydrogen peroxide is a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water. The oxidizing capacity of hydrogen peroxide is so strong that it is considered a highly reactive oxygen species. Organisms also naturally produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product of oxidative metabolism. Consequently, nearly all living things (specifically, all obligate and facultative aerobes) possess enzymes known as catalase peroxidases, which harmlessly and catalytically decompose low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. (Wikipedia) Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colourless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. It is a weak acid. It has strong oxidizing properties and has also found use as a disinfectant and as an oxidizer. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a well-documented component of living cells. It plays important roles in host defense and oxidative biosynthetic reactions. In addition, there is growing evidence that at low levels, H2O2 also functions as a signaling agent, particularly in higher organisms. (HMDB) In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, H2O2 is used in the aerobic degradation of L-ascorbate, and produced as a byproduct in many reactions involving oxygen as an oxidizing agent. (EcoCyc) In Pseudomonas aeruginosa glyoxylate metabolism, H2O2 is produced as a byproduct of the conversion of glycolate to glyoxylate by the enzyme glycolate oxidase (EC 1.1.3.15), and H2O2 is then converted to harmless O2 by the enzyme catalase (EC 1.11.1.6). (KEGG)
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • Adeka Super EL
  • Albone
  • Albone 35
  • Albone DS
  • Anti-Keim 50
  • Asepticper
  • Baquashock
  • Bis(hydridooxygen)(OO)
  • CIX
  • Clarigel Gold
  • Crestal Whitestrips
  • Crystacide
  • Dentasept
  • Deslime LP
  • Dihydrogen dioxide
  • Dihydrogen peroxide
  • Dihydrogen(peroxide)
  • Dioxidane
  • Elawox
  • H2O2
  • H2O2
  • Hioxyl
  • Hipox
  • HOOH
  • Hybrite
  • Hydrogen dioxide
  • Hydrogen dioxide solution
  • Hydrogen oxide
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
  • Hydrogen peroxide solution (DOT)
  • Hydrogen peroxide, 90%
  • Hydrogen peroxide, solution
  • Hydroperoxide
  • Inhibine
  • Lase Peroxide
  • Lensan A
  • Lensept
  • Magic Bleaching
  • Metrokur
  • Mirasept
  • Nite White Excel 2
  • Odosat D
  • Opalescence Xtra
  • Oxigenal
  • Oxydol
  • Oxyfull
  • Oxysept
  • Oxysept I
  • Pegasyl
  • Perhydrol
  • Perone
  • Peroxaan
  • Peroxclean
  • Peroxide
  • Quasar Brite
  • Select Bleach
  • Superoxol
  • T-Stuff
  • Whiteness HP
  • Whitespeed
  • Xtra White
  • [OH(OH)]
Chemical Formula: H2O2
Average Molecular Weight: 34.0147
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 34.005479308
InChI Key: MHAJPDPJQMAIIY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/H2O2/c1-2/h1-2H
CAS number: 7722-84-1
IUPAC Name:peroxol
Traditional IUPAC Name: hydrogen peroxide
SMILES:OO
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other nonmetals'.
Kingdom Inorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
Class Homogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct Parent Homogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative Parents Not Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous other non metal
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Liquid
Charge:0
Melting point: -0.43 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:1000 mg/mL at 25 deg CPhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.52ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity5.13 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability2.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Reactions:
Pyridoxamine + Water + Oxygen <> Pyridoxal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Pyridoxine + Oxygen <> Pyridoxal + Hydrogen peroxide
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen <> 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen <> Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water <> Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
2 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid + 4 Oxygen <> Cinnavalininate +2 Superoxide anion +2 Hydrogen peroxide +2 Hydrogen ion
1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water <> 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen <> 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + Water + Oxygen <> gamma-Glutamyl-gamma-butyraldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen ion + Hydrogen peroxide + Iron > hydroxyl radical + OH<SUP>-</SUP> + Fe<SUP>3+</SUP>
dehydroascorbate (bicyclic form) + Hydrogen peroxide > L-threonate + Oxalic acid + Hydrogen ion
Ascorbic acid + Hydrogen peroxide > monodehydroascorbate + Water
Heme + Hydrogen peroxide Heme D
NAD(P)H + Cr<sup>6+</sup> + Oxygen > NAD(P)<sup>+</sup> + Cr<sup>3+</sup> + Hydrogen peroxide
L-Methionine + Hydrogen peroxide > L-methionine <i>S</i>-oxide + Water
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen > Hydrogen ion + Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
an aliphatic amine + Water + Oxygen > an aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen ion
Water + Oxygen + Phenylethylamine > Hydrogen ion + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia + Phenylacetaldehyde
L-Malic acid + Oxygen <> Oxalacetic acid + Hydrogen peroxide
a phenolic donor + Hydrogen peroxide a phenoxyl radical of a phenolic donor + Water
Oxygen + Water + Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate > Hydrogen ion + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammonia + Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Oxygen + Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate > Hydrogen peroxide + Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Protoporphyrinogen IX + Oxygen > Protoporphyrin IX + Hydrogen peroxide
a reduced electron acceptor + Hydrogen peroxide > an oxidized electron acceptor + Water
Ascorbic acid + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen ion > Ascorbic acid + L-dehydro-ascorbate + Water
a primary amine + Water + Oxygen > an aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
L-2-Hydroxyglutaric acid + Oxygen > Oxoglutaric acid + Hydrogen peroxide
RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen > RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
2 Iron + Hydrogen peroxide + 2 Hydrogen ion >2 Fe3+ +2 Water
Donor + Hydrogen peroxide > oxidized donor +2 Water
(S)-2-hydroxy acid + Oxygen > 2-oxo acid + Hydrogen peroxide
2 superoxide + 2 Hydrogen ion > Oxygen + Hydrogen peroxide
2 Ferrocytochrome c + Hydrogen peroxide >2 Ferricytochrome c +2 Water
Reduced acceptor + Hydrogen peroxide <> Acceptor + Water + Oxygen
Primary amine + Water + Oxygen <> Aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + Water + Oxygen + Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate <> Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
(S)-2-Hydroxyacid + Oxygen <> 2-Oxo acid + Hydrogen peroxide
L-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen + L-Aspartic acid > Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide
L-Aspartic acid + Oxygen + L-Aspartic acid > Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen ion + Iminoaspartic acid
gamma-Glutamyl-L-putrescine + Oxygen + Water > 4-(γ-glutamylamino)butanal + Ammonium + Hydrogen peroxide
ferroheme b + Hydrogen peroxide > Heme D
More...

Pathways:
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-50a90bb1548c24e83fbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-50a90bb1548c24e83fbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-50a90bb1548c24e83fbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001i-9000000000-a9a93dd42f2cfa0b34c4View in MoNA
References
References:
  • Ardanaz N, Pagano PJ: Hydrogen peroxide as a paracrine vascular mediator: regulation and signaling leading to dysfunction. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Mar;231(3):237-51. Pubmed: 16514169
  • Gonzalez-Flecha, B., Demple, B. (1997). "Homeostatic regulation of intracellular hydrogen peroxide concentration in aerobically growing Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 179:382-388. Pubmed: 8990289
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Lopez-Lazaro M: Dual role of hydrogen peroxide in cancer: possible relevance to cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Cancer Lett. 2007 Jul 8;252(1):1-8. Epub 2006 Dec 5. Pubmed: 17150302
  • Schallreuter KU, Elwary S: Hydrogen peroxide regulates the cholinergic signal in a concentration dependent manner. Life Sci. 2007 May 30;80(24-25):2221-6. Epub 2007 Jan 25. Pubmed: 17335854
  • Stone JR, Yang S: Hydrogen peroxide: a signaling messenger. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 Mar-Apr;8(3-4):243-70. Pubmed: 16677071
  • Tredwin CJ, Naik S, Lewis NJ, Scully C: Hydrogen peroxide tooth-whitening (bleaching) products: review of adverse effects and safety issues. Br Dent J. 2006 Apr 8;200(7):371-6. Pubmed: 16607324
Synthesis Reference: Not Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID16240
HMDB IDHMDB03125
Pubchem Compound ID784
Kegg IDC00027
ChemSpider ID763
WikipediaHydrogen_peroxide
BioCyc IDHYDROGEN-PEROXIDE
EcoCyc IDHYDROGEN-PEROXIDE
Ligand ExpoPER

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in superoxide dismutase activity
Specific function:
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems
Gene Name:
sodA
Locus Tag:
PA4468
Molecular weight:
22.5 kDa
Reactions
2 superoxide + 2 H(+) = O(2) + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Involved in antioxidant activity
Specific function:
2 R'-SH + ROOH = R'-S-S-R' + H(2)O + ROH
Gene Name:
bcp
Locus Tag:
PA1008
Molecular weight:
17.4 kDa
Reactions
2 R'-SH + ROOH = R'-S-S-R' + H(2)O + ROH.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
glcD
Locus Tag:
PA5355
Molecular weight:
53.7 kDa
General function:
Involved in superoxide dismutase activity
Specific function:
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems
Gene Name:
sodB
Locus Tag:
PA4366
Molecular weight:
21.4 kDa
Reactions
2 superoxide + 2 H(+) = O(2) + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of L-aspartate to iminoaspartate
Gene Name:
nadB
Locus Tag:
PA0761
Molecular weight:
60 kDa
Reactions
L-aspartate + O(2) = iminosuccinate + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Involved in catalase activity
Specific function:
Decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen; serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide
Gene Name:
katE
Locus Tag:
PA2147
Molecular weight:
78 kDa
Reactions
2 H(2)O(2) = O(2) + 2 H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in malate dehydrogenase (quinone) activity
Specific function:
(S)-malate + a quinone = oxaloacetate + reduced quinone
Gene Name:
mqo
Locus Tag:
PA3452
Molecular weight:
57.2 kDa
Reactions
(S)-malate + a quinone = oxaloacetate + reduced quinone.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the breakdown of putrescine via the oxidation of L-glutamylputrescine
Gene Name:
puuB
Locus Tag:
PA2776
Molecular weight:
46.7 kDa
Reactions
Gamma-glutamylputrescine + H(2)O + O(2) = Gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyraldehyde + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
General function:
Involved in iron-sulfur cluster binding
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
glcF
Locus Tag:
PA5353
Molecular weight:
44.7 kDa
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Specific function unknown
Gene Name:
glcE
Locus Tag:
PA5354
Molecular weight:
38.2 kDa
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions
Gene Name:
trxA
Locus Tag:
PA5240
Molecular weight:
11.9 kDa
General function:
Coenzyme transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of either pyridoxine 5'- phosphate (PNP) or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) into pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)
Gene Name:
pdxH
Locus Tag:
PA1049
Molecular weight:
24.9 kDa
Reactions
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + H(2)O + O(2) = pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate + O(2) = pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + H(2)O(2).

Transporters