Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:54 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000045
Name: D-Glucose
Description:Glucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as an aldohexose. The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal. In water solution both forms are in equilibrium and at pH 7 the cyclic one is the predominant. Glucose is a primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state.
  • α-glucose
  • (+)-Glucose
  • 6-(Hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran-2,3,4,5-tetraol
  • A-D-Glucose
  • a-Glucose
  • Alpha-Glucose
  • Anhydrous dextrose
  • Cerelose
  • Cerelose 2001
  • Clearsweet 95
  • Clintose L
  • Corn sugar
  • CPC hydrate
  • CPC hydric acid
  • D(+)-Glucose
  • D-glucose
  • Dextropur
  • Dextrose
  • Dextrosol
  • Glucodin
  • Glucolin
  • Glucose
  • Goldsugar
  • Grape sugar
  • Meritose
  • Roferose ST
  • Staleydex 111
  • Staleydex 95M
  • Tabfine 097(HS)
  • Vadex
  • α-Glucose
Chemical Formula: C6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight: 180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 180.063388116
CAS number: 50-99-7
IUPAC Name:(3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional IUPAC Name: glucose
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as monosaccharides. These are compounds containing one carbohydrate unit not glycosidically linked to another such unit, and no set of two or more glycosidically linked carbohydrate units. Monosaccharides have the general formula CnH2nOn.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Class Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassMonosaccharides
Direct Parent Monosaccharides
Alternative Parents
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hemiacetal
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Melting point: 146-150 °C
Experimental Properties:
Water Solubility:1200.0 mg/mL [MULLIN,JW (1972)]PhysProp
LogP:-3.24 [SANGSTER (1994)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility782.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.09 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00kb-1931000000-ec21c3af97621f7bf95aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f53c5f0d5ad84d32679fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS; 1 MEOX)splash10-00di-9821000000-dbc697213e3b7cc9d4feView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS; 1 MEOX)splash10-00di-9621000000-9d1d8057758d3da8cacaView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-014i-2490000000-3ed4c4fd34c05bad95f7View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 5 TMS)splash10-066r-1952000000-3378cb724e551e8b0267View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0udl-0690000000-c8fda4276ff69235f30dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 5 TMS)splash10-0ldi-1942000000-5d531ed23a4e82023d1cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-0udi-0790000000-7ebe75cd633c58d761faView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0002-9300000000-839f41cf94a071fcdb37View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0002-9000000000-807f75d14f3d0b66f5bdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-000t-9000000000-b89668f86992a8363664View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-7900000000-9a673c2e4b82ca397421View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-9100000000-b70415588e768ddce5efView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-73dc84dd88d8ae69fe02View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-ba39d4ed9431a1d01eabView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-a61efd1469735758b317View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
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Synthesis Reference: Li, Dalin; Ruan, Yi; Song, Wen; Wang, Yongjun. Improved process for producing glucose. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2003), 4 pp
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Not Available
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID5793
Kegg IDC00031
ChemSpider ID5589


General function:
Involved in glucokinase activity
Specific function:
Not highly important in Pseudomonas aeruginosa as glucose is transported into the cell by the PTS system already as glucose 6-phosphate
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
34.6 kDa
ATP + D-glucose = ADP + D-glucose 6-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Provides the cells with the ability to utilize trehalose at high osmolarity by splitting it into glucose molecules that can subsequently be taken up by the phosphotransferase-mediated uptake system
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
61.2 kDa
Alpha,alpha-trehalose + H(2)O = 2 D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors
Specific function:
GDH is probably involved in energy conservation rather than in sugar metabolism
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
86.2 kDa
D-glucose + ubiquinone = D-glucono-1,5-lactone + ubiquinol.
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D- glucosyl residues with release of beta-D-glucose
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
83 kDa
Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-glucosyl residues with release of beta-D-glucose.
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, quinone or similar compound as acceptor
Specific function:
Aldose sugar dehydrogenase with broad substrate specificity. The physiological substrate is unknown. Can oxidize glucose to gluconolactone. Can also utilize D-arabinose, L- arabinose and 2-deoxy-glucose. Has higher activity towards oligomeric sugars, such as maltose, maltotriose or cellobiose. It may function to input sugar-derived electrons into the respiratory network
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
41.4 kDa