Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:54 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000044
Name: Folic acid
Description:Folic acid is a member of the vitamin B family. Folic acid, being biochemically inactive, is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid and methyltetrahydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase. These folic acid congeners are transported across cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, synthesize purine and thymidylate nucleic acids, interconvert amino acids, methylated tRNA, and generate and use formate.
  • Acifolic
  • Cytofol
  • Dosfolat B activ
  • Folacid
  • Folacin
  • Folate
  • Folbal
  • Folcidin
  • Foldine
  • Folettes
  • Foliamin
  • Folic acid
  • Folicet
  • Folipac
  • Folsan
  • Folsaure
  • Folsav
  • Folvite
  • Incafolic
  • Liver Lactobacillus casei factor
  • Millafol
  • N-(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)-L-glutamate
  • N-(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid
  • N-Pteroyl-L-glutamate
  • N-Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
  • N-[(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamate
  • N-[(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid
  • N-[4-[[(2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-L-glutamate
  • N-[4-[[(2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid
  • PGA
  • PteGlu
  • Pteroyl-L-glutamate
  • Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
  • Pteroyl-L-monoglutamate
  • Pteroyl-L-monoglutamic acid
  • Pteroylglutamate
  • Pteroylglutamic acid
  • Pteroylmonoglutamate
  • Pteroylmonoglutamic acid
  • Vitamin Bc
  • Vitamin Be
  • Vitamin M
Chemical Formula: C19H19N7O6
Average Molecular Weight: 441.3975
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 441.139681375
CAS number: 59-30-3
IUPAC Name:(2S)-2-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)formamido]pentanedioic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name: folate
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as folic acids. These are heterocyclic compounds based on the 4-[(pteridin-6-ylmethyl)amino]benzoic acid skeleton conjugated with one or more L-glutamate units.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Class Pteridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPterins and derivatives
Direct Parent Folic acids
Alternative Parents
  • Folic acid
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Hippuric acid
  • Hippuric acid or derivatives
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • N-substituted-alpha-amino acid
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzamide
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Phenylalkylamine
  • Substituted aniline
  • Benzoyl
  • Hydroxypyrimidine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Aniline
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrazine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Melting point: 250 °C
Experimental Properties:
Water Solubility:0.0016 mg/mL [MERCK INDEX (1983)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0761 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.37ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.09ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area208.99 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity111.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.06 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-0000900000-4208ea3c2f5d9026c19fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-0050900000-2c8ad037dc3b270765c4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0007-0090300000-ebdec84cbb7fe5afbc0bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-0007-0903600000-e5d91e4f2ab79d130b76View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9410000000-7cba521e870757539424View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
  • Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, Bischof AM, Caughman CR, Loria CM, Johnson CL: Dietary intake of vitamins, minerals, and fiber of persons ages 2 months and over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Phase 1, 1988-91. Adv Data. 1994 Nov 14;(258):1-28. Pubmed: 10138938
  • Cahill E, McPartlin J, Gibney MJ: The effects of fasting and refeeding healthy volunteers on serum folate levels. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998;68(2):142-5. Pubmed: 9565830
  • Clifford AJ, Arjomand A, Dueker SR, Schneider PD, Buchholz BA, Vogel JS: The dynamics of folic acid metabolism in an adult given a small tracer dose of 14C-folic acid. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;445:239-51. Pubmed: 9781393
  • Dietrich M, Brown CJ, Block G: The effect of folate fortification of cereal-grain products on blood folate status, dietary folate intake, and dietary folate sources among adult non-supplement users in the United States. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Aug;24(4):266-74. Pubmed: 16093404
  • Fenech M, Aitken C, Rinaldi J: Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine status and DNA damage in young Australian adults. Carcinogenesis. 1998 Jul;19(7):1163-71. Pubmed: 9683174
  • Gregory JF 3rd, Williamson J, Bailey LB, Toth JP: Urinary excretion of [2H4]folate by nonpregnant women following a single oral dose of [2H4]folic acid is a functional index of folate nutritional status. J Nutr. 1998 Nov;128(11):1907-12. Pubmed: 9808641
  • Gregory JF 3rd, Williamson J, Liao JF, Bailey LB, Toth JP: Kinetic model of folate metabolism in nonpregnant women consuming [2H2]folic acid: isotopic labeling of urinary folate and the catabolite para-acetamidobenzoylglutamate indicates slow, intake-dependent, turnover of folate pools. J Nutr. 1998 Nov;128(11):1896-906. Pubmed: 9808640
  • Kamen B: Folate and antifolate pharmacology. Semin Oncol. 1997 Oct;24(5 Suppl 18):S18-30-S18-39. Pubmed: 9420019
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kopczynska E, Ziolkowski M, Jendryczka-Mackiewicz E, Odrowaz-Sypniewska G, Opozda K, Tyrakowski T: [The concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 in alcohol dependent male patients] Psychiatr Pol. 2004 Sep-Oct;38(5):947-56. Pubmed: 15523939
  • Lin Y, Dueker SR, Follett JR, Fadel JG, Arjomand A, Schneider PD, Miller JW, Green R, Buchholz BA, Vogel JS, Phair RD, Clifford AJ: Quantitation of in vivo human folate metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Sep;80(3):680-91. Pubmed: 15321809
  • Litwin M, Abuauba M, Wawer ZT, Grenda R, Kuryl T, Pietraszek E: [Sulphur amino acids, vitamin B12 and folic acid in children with chronic renal failure] Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2000 Apr;8(46):268-9. Pubmed: 10897644
  • Olthof MR, Bots ML, Katan MB, Verhoef P: Effect of folic Acid and betaine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation: a randomized, controlled study in healthy volunteers. PLoS Clin Trials. 2006 Jun;1(2):e10. Epub 2006 Jun 9. Pubmed: 16871332
  • Pufulete M, Al-Ghnaniem R, Khushal A, Appleby P, Harris N, Gout S, Emery PW, Sanders TA: Effect of folic acid supplementation on genomic DNA methylation in patients with colorectal adenoma. Gut. 2005 May;54(5):648-53. Pubmed: 15831910
  • Raiten DJ, Fisher KD: Assessment of folate methodology used in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). J Nutr. 1995 May;125(5):1371S-1398S. Pubmed: 7738698
  • Rodriguez Flores J, Penalvo GC, Mansilla AE, Gomez MJ: Capillary electrophoretic determination of methotrexate, leucovorin and folic acid in human urine. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 May 5;819(1):141-7. Pubmed: 15797531
  • Selley ML, Close DR, Stern SE: The effect of increased concentrations of homocysteine on the concentration of (E)-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2002 May-Jun;23(3):383-8. Pubmed: 11959400
  • Stern LL, Bagley PJ, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J: Conversion of 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid to 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid is unimpaired in folate-adequate persons homozygous for the C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene. J Nutr. 2000 Sep;130(9):2238-42. Pubmed: 10958818
  • Stuerenburg HJ, Ganzer S, Arlt S, Muller-Thomsen T: The influence of smoking on plasma folate and lipoproteins in Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment and depression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Jun;26(3):261-3. Pubmed: 15990733
  • Zittoun J: [Anemias due to disorder of folate, vitamin B12 and transcobalamin metabolism]. Rev Prat. 1993 Jun 1;43(11):1358-63. Pubmed: 8235383
Synthesis Reference: Piper, James R.; McCaleb, George S.; Montgomery, John A. Synthesis of 10-propargylfolic acid from 2-amino-6-(bromomethyl)-4(1H)-pteridinone. Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry (1987), 24(1), 279-82.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID6037
Kegg IDC00504
ChemSpider ID5815
WikipediaFolic acid
BioCyc IDCPD-12826
EcoCyc IDCPD-12826
Ligand ExpoFOL