Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:54 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB110803
Name: protoporphyrin IX
Description:The dicarboxylate anion of protoporphyrin, obtained by deprotonation of both carboxy groups.
  • protoporphyrin
Chemical Formula: C34H32N4O4
Average Molecular Weight: 560.65
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 562.2580056006
InChI: InChI=1S/C34H34N4O4/c1-7-21-17(3)25-13-26-19(5)23(9-11-33(39)40)31(37-26)16-32-24(10-12-34(41)42)20(6)28(38-32)15-30-22(8-2)18(4)27(36-30)14-29(21)35-25/h7-8,13-16,35,38H,1-2,9-12H2,3-6H3,(H,39,40)(H,41,42)/p-2/b25-13-,26-13-,27-14-,28-15-,29-14-,30-15-,31-16-,32-16-
CAS number: 553-12-8
IUPAC Name:7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethylporphyrin-2,18-dipropanoate
Traditional IUPAC Name: protoporphyrin
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as porphyrins. These are compounds containing a fundamental skeleton of four pyrrole nuclei united through the alpha-positions by four methine groups to form a macrocyclic structure.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Class Tetrapyrroles and derivatives
Sub ClassPorphyrins
Direct Parent Porphyrins
Alternative Parents
  • Porphyrin
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrole
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic anion
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
  • a porphyrin (PROTOPORPHYRIN_IX)
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Melting point: 300 °C
Experimental Properties:
Melting Point300 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.169 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.022 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.96ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area131.96 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity163.81 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability65.97 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Not Available
Spectra: Not Available
  • Messmann H, Knuchel R, Baumler W, Holstege A, Scholmerich J: Endoscopic fluorescence detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus, ulcerative colitis, or adenomatous polyps after 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX sensitization. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999 Jan;49(1):97-101. [9869731 ]
  • Stankiewicz A, Lutz W, Krajewska B, Szulc B: [Plasma indicators of iron metabolism in persons occupationally exposed to organic solvents with normal and increased levels of protoporphyrin IX in erythrocytes] Pol Tyg Lek. 1986 Jul 7;41(27):851-4. [3763462 ]
  • Stankiewicz A: [Erythrocyte protoporphyrin IX in occupational exposure to asbestos] Med Pr. 1984;35(5):351-4. [6530952 ]
  • Sudworth CD, Stringer MR, Cruse-Sawyer JE, Brown SB: Fluorescence microspectroscopy technique for the study of intracellular protoporphyrin IX dynamics. Appl Spectrosc. 2003 Jun;57(6):682-8. [14658702 ]
  • Kufner G, Schlegel H, Jager R: A spectrophotometric micromethod for determining erythrocyte protoporphyrin-IX in whole blood or erythrocytes. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(2):183-91. [15843214 ]
  • Stankiewicz A: The concentration of protoporphyrin IX in workers occupationally exposed to lead. Mater Med Pol. 1989 Apr-Jun;21(2):100-2. [2488459 ]
  • Krieg RC, Fickweiler S, Wolfbeis OS, Knuechel R: Cell-type specific protoporphyrin IX metabolism in human bladder cancer in vitro. Photochem Photobiol. 2000 Aug;72(2):226-33. [10946577 ]
  • Bailey GG, Needham LL: Simultaneous quantification of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin and protoporphyrin IX by liquid chromatography. Clin Chem. 1986 Dec;32(12):2137-42. [3779978 ]
  • Chisolm J Jr, Brown DH: Micro-scale photofluorometric determination of "free erythrocyte pophyrin" (protoporphyrin IX). Clin Chem. 1975 Oct;21(11):1669-82. [1164799 ]
  • Casas A, Batlle AM, Butler AR, Robertson D, Brown EH, MacRobert A, Riley PA: Comparative effect of ALA derivatives on protoporphyrin IX production in human and rat skin organ cultures. Br J Cancer. 1999 Jul;80(10):1525-32. [10408393 ]
  • Smits T, Robles CA, van Erp PE, van de Kerkhof PC, Gerritsen MJ: Correlation between macroscopic fluorescence and protoporphyrin IX content in psoriasis and actinic keratosis following application of aminolevulinic acid. J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Oct;125(4):833-9. [16185285 ]
  • Bartosova J, Hrkal Z: Accumulation of protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX) in leukemic cell lines following induction by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000 Jul;126(3):245-52. [11048674 ]
  • Sakai T, Takeuchi Y, Ikeya Y, Araki T, Ushio K: [Automated HPLC method for determining zinc protoporphyrin IX and protoporphyrin IX in erythrocytes of workers exposed to lead] Sangyo Igaku. 1988 Nov;30(6):467-74. [3221502 ]
  • Stankiewicz A, Lutz W, Szeszko A: [Protoporphyrin IX level in erythrocytes of persons with alcoholic liver cirrhosis] Pol Tyg Lek. 1985 Jul 15;40(28):787-9. [4059100 ]
  • Star WM, Aalders MC, Sac A, Sterenborg HJ: Quantitative model calculation of the time-dependent protoporphyrin IX concentration in normal human epidermis after delivery of ALA by passive topical application or lontophoresis. Photochem Photobiol. 2002 Apr;75(4):424-32. [12003134 ]
  • von Beckerath M, Juzenas P, Ma LW, Iani V, Lofgren L, Moan J: The influence of UV exposure on 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX production in skin. Photochem Photobiol. 2001 Dec;74(6):825-8. [11783939 ]
  • Gottsch JD, Graham CR Jr, Hairston RJ, Chen CH, Green WR, Stark WJ: Protoporphyrin IX photosensitization of corneal endothelium. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989 Oct;107(10):1497-500. [2803100 ]
  • Bissonnette R, Zeng H, McLean DI, Korbelik M, Lui H: Oral aminolevulinic acid induces protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in psoriatic plaques and peripheral blood cells. Photochem Photobiol. 2001 Aug;74(2):339-45. [11547574 ]
  • Rick K, Sroka R, Stepp H, Kriegmair M, Huber RM, Jacob K, Baumgartner R: Pharmacokinetics of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX in skin and blood. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1997 Oct;40(3):313-9. [9372622 ]
  • De Rosa FS, Marchetti JM, Thomazini JA, Tedesco AC, Bentley MV: A vehicle for photodynamic therapy of skin cancer: influence of dimethylsulphoxide on 5-aminolevulinic acid in vitro cutaneous permeation and in vivo protoporphyrin IX accumulation determined by confocal microscopy. J Control Release. 2000 Apr 3;65(3):359-66. [10699294 ]
Synthesis Reference: Games, David E.; Jackson, Anthony H.; Jackson, J. Richard; Belcher, Roderick V.; Smith, Sydney G. Biosynthesis of protoporphyrin-IX from coproporphyrinogen-III. Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications (1976), (6), 187-8.
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