Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 11:54:53 AM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000399
Identification
Name: Nicotinic acid
Description:Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin or vitamin B3, is a derivative of pyridine, with a carboxyl group (COOH) at the 3-position. Other forms of vitamin B3 include the corresponding amide, nicotinamide ("niacinamide"), where the carboxyl group has been replaced by a carboxamide group (CONH2), as well as more complex amides and a variety of esters. The uptake of nicotinic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is dependent on the presence of the enzyme nicotinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase and a source of energy.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms:
  • 3-Carboxylpyridine
  • 3-Carboxypyridine
  • 3-Pyridinecarboxylate
  • 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid
  • 3-Pyridylcarboxylate
  • 3-Pyridylcarboxylic acid
  • Akotin
  • Apelagrin
  • Daskil
  • Efacin
  • Enduracin
  • Linic
  • Niac
  • Niacin
  • Niacine
  • Niacor
  • Nicacid
  • Nicamin
  • Nicangin
  • Nico-400-
  • Nico-Span
  • Nicobid
  • Nicocap
  • Nicodelmine
  • Nicolar
  • Niconacid
  • Nicosan 3
  • Nicotinate
  • Nicotinic acid
  • Nicotinipca
  • Nicyl
  • Nyclin
  • Pellagrin
  • Pelonin
  • Slo-niacin
  • Vitamin B3
  • Vitamin B3
  • Wampocap
Chemical Formula: C6H5NO2
Average Molecular Weight: 123.1094
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 123.032028409
InChI Key: PVNIIMVLHYAWGP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI:InChI=1S/C6H5NO2/c8-6(9)5-2-1-3-7-4-5/h1-4H,(H,8,9)
CAS number: 59-67-6
IUPAC Name:pyridine-3-carboxylic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name: niacin
SMILES:OC(=O)C1=CN=CC=C1
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as pyridinecarboxylic acids. These are compounds containing a pyridine ring bearing a carboxylic acid group.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Class Pyridines and derivatives
Sub ClassPyridinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent Pyridinecarboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Charge:-1
Melting point: 236.6 °C
Experimental Properties:
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility:18.0 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogP:0.36 [SANGSTER (1993)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility83.1 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.29ALOGPS
logP-0.17ChemAxon
logS-0.17ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.19ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area50.19 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity31.16 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.3 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Reactions:
Pathways:
Spectra
Spectra:
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-053i-0900000000-5daf0093df6c21c7279fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-053i-0900000000-f38b6609b45de8c74565View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0540-0900000000-4f55c81a6cd42f1b961dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-057r-5900000000-00bf3662b5b9db533c0aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0569-2900000000-7820ea736b03b71d2cb8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-1900000000-27508608b33f1fb9f221View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-003r-9100000000-a2037c9695659dceabd1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0ufr-9100000000-4a2649a83ad2a40e5194View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-0kmi-7900000000-1bc47d1b1850f54fb7c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-1900000000-a352c5ce16d4b682b052View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-ab23ecb032e387b40bd9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-02e37a1cfd3947037579View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-75d7e6658d2d6eca736eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-21a2d68d4f364c596f1dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0ab9-0900000000-a74db528f61c435876c8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-6900000000-773c08ab92ace4d48a9cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00aj-9100000000-07b12fbe942e6c7fb12dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-005a-9000000000-66e0a5ba2ca8dbba1ed5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-004i-9000000000-fbf8ba47b56d7cc7be81View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-eaf82f6ab0befde118e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-0900000000-eaf82f6ab0befde118e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-004i-9300000000-b1a48f694fba565108a1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0kor-8900000000-7d3f033a49f5fad75f33View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
References:
  • Angelin B, Einarsson K, Leijd B: Biliary lipid composition during treatment with different hypolipidaemic drugs. Eur J Clin Invest. 1979 Jun;9(3):185-90. Pubmed: 113218
  • Chekalina SI, Guseva LI, Bardyechev MS: [Use of nicotinic acid and midocalm for correcting blood coagulation in patients with radiation edema of the extremities] Med Radiol (Mosk). 1985 Aug;30(8):28-30. Pubmed: 4033386
  • Dastur DK, Santhadevi N, Quadros EV, Avari FC, Wadia NH, Desai MN, Bharucha EP: The B-vitamins in malnutrition with alcoholism. A model of intervitamin relationships. Br J Nutr. 1976 Sep;36(2):143-59. Pubmed: 182198
  • Gopal E, Fei YJ, Miyauchi S, Zhuang L, Prasad PD, Ganapathy V: Sodium-coupled and electrogenic transport of B-complex vitamin nicotinic acid by slc5a8, a member of the Na/glucose co-transporter gene family. Biochem J. 2005 May 15;388(Pt 1):309-16. Pubmed: 15651982
  • Hengen N, Seiberth V, Hengen M: High-performance liquid-chromatographic determination of free nicotinic acid and its metabolite, nicotinuric acid, in plasma and urine. Clin Chem. 1978 Oct;24(10):1740-3. Pubmed: 699281
  • Hertle H, Kiese M, Renner G: Absorption in rats, dogs, pigs, and humans of nicotinic acid after oral administration of phosphatidyl inositol pentanicotinate hydrochloride (PIN). Arzneimittelforschung. 1979;29(1):114-6. Pubmed: 582105
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kobayashi M, Shimizu S: [Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide] Nippon Rinsho. 1999 Oct;57(10):2211-7. Pubmed: 10540864
  • Mrochek JE, Jolley RL, Young DS, Turner WJ: Metabolic response of humans to ingestion of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Clin Chem. 1976 Nov;22(11):1821-7. Pubmed: 135660
  • Muller B, Kasper M, Surber C, Imanidis G: Permeation, metabolism and site of action concentration of nicotinic acid derivatives in human skin. Correlation with topical pharmacological effect. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2003 Oct;20(2):181-95. Pubmed: 14550884
  • Patterson MC, Di Bisceglie AM, Higgins JJ, Abel RB, Schiffmann R, Parker CC, Argoff CE, Grewal RP, Yu K, Pentchev PG, et al.: The effect of cholesterol-lowering agents on hepatic and plasma cholesterol in Niemann-Pick disease type C. Neurology. 1993 Jan;43(1):61-4. Pubmed: 8423912
  • Pike NB: Flushing out the role of GPR109A (HM74A) in the clinical efficacy of nicotinic acid. J Clin Invest. 2005 Dec;115(12):3400-3. Pubmed: 16322787
  • Salvi A, Carrupt PA, Mayer JM, Testa B: Esterase-like activity of human serum albumin toward prodrug esters of nicotinic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Apr;25(4):395-8. Pubmed: 9107536
  • Santos RD: [Pharmacology of niacin or nicotinic acid] Arq Bras Cardiol. 2005 Oct;85 Suppl 5:17-9. Epub 2006 Jan 2. Pubmed: 16400392
  • Stratford MR, Dennis MF, Hoskin P, Phillips H, Hodgkiss RJ, Rojas A: Nicotinamide pharmacokinetics in humans: effect of gastric acid inhibition, comparison of rectal vs oral administration and the use of saliva for drug monitoring. Br J Cancer. 1996 Jul;74(1):16-21. Pubmed: 8679452
  • Sutherland WH, Larking PW, Nye ER: Modification of nicotinic acid and prostaglandin E1 antilipolytic action in vitro. Atherosclerosis. 1976 Oct;25(1):45-53. Pubmed: 186078
  • Tunaru S, Kero J, Schaub A, Wufka C, Blaukat A, Pfeffer K, Offermanns S: PUMA-G and HM74 are receptors for nicotinic acid and mediate its anti-lipolytic effect. Nat Med. 2003 Mar;9(3):352-5. Epub 2003 Feb 3. Pubmed: 12563315
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
  • Zarzycki PK, Kowalski P, Nowakowska J, Lamparczyk H: High-performance liquid chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic determination of free nicotinic acid in human plasma and separation of its metabolites by capillary electrophoresis. J Chromatogr A. 1995 Aug 11;709(1):203-8. Pubmed: 7581845
Synthesis Reference: McElvain, S. M.; Goese, M. A. Preparation of nicotinic acid from pyridine. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1941), 63 2283-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
ResourceLink
CHEBI ID15940
HMDB IDHMDB01488
Pubchem Compound ID938
Kegg IDC00253
ChemSpider ID913
WikipediaNicotinic acid
BioCyc IDNIACINE
EcoCyc IDNIACINE
Ligand ExpoNIO

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Nicotinate D-ribonucleotide + diphosphate = nicotinate + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate
Gene Name:
pncB
Locus Tag:
PA4919
Molecular weight:
46.1 kDa
Reactions
Beta-nicotinate D-ribonucleotide + diphosphate = nicotinate + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate.

Transporters